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Gene Review

LALBA  -  lactalbumin, alpha-

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of LALBA

  • The sensitization was measured (1) by systemic IgG1 antibodies directed against bovine or caprine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg), alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and whole caseins, and (2) by intestinal anaphylaxis measured in vitro in Ussing chambers, by the rise in short-circuit current (delta Isc) in response to milk proteins [1].
  • Weight gain of piglets suckling alpha-lactalbumin gilts was greater (days 7-21 after parturition) than that of control piglets [2].

High impact information on LALBA


Biological context of LALBA


Anatomical context of LALBA

  • 1. The major milk proteins synthesized by the lactating mammary gland of the guinea pig were identified and designated as caseins A, B and C and alpha-lactalbumin, with estimated mol.wts. of 28000, 25500, 20500 and 14500 respectively [11].
  • Hypotheses that 1) basal P(s) properties and 2) P(s) responses to vasoactive stimuli are sex independent were evaluated from measures of P(s) to two hydrophilic proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and porcine serum albumin (PSA), in arterioles and venules isolated from hearts of adult male and female pigs [12].
  • HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of apo alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, formed in casein after low pH treatment of human milk [9].
  • Polyadenylated RNAs isolated from bound polysomes of a lactating sow's mammary gland, were translated in a cell-free system and in vitro synthesized alpha-lactalbumin was immunoprecipitated and radiosequenced [13].
  • METHODS: Segments from jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum were mounted in Ussing diffusion chambers, and the mucosa-to-serosa passage of 14C-mannitol, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 4,400, alpha-lactalbumin, ovalbumin, and FITC-dextran 70,000 was studied [14].

Associations of LALBA with chemical compounds

  • While either conformer of alpha-lactalbumin [Ca(II) or Zn(II)] is kinetically equivalent, the Ca(II) form probably dominates under physiological conditions [7].
  • This was not explained by alpha-lactalbumin sequence variation, as purified bovine, equine, porcine, and caprine alpha-lactalbumins formed complexes with oleic acid with biological activity similar to HAMLET [9].
  • This study examined if HAMLET-like complexes are present in casein from different species and if isolated alpha-lactalbumin from those species can form such complexes with oleic acid [9].
  • Examples given are for peptides from a digest of methionine growth hormone, protein separations from whey proteins containing alpha-lactalbumin and the beta-lactoglobulins A and B, and bovine and porcine insulins [15].
  • Identification of the epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-linking sites in alpha-lactalbumin polymerized by mammalian and microbial transglutaminases [16].

Other interactions of LALBA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LALBA


  1. Goats' milk of defective alpha(s1)-casein genotype decreases intestinal and systemic sensitization to beta-lactoglobulin in guinea pigs. Bevilacqua, C., Martin, P., Candalh, C., Fauquant, J., Piot, M., Roucayrol, A.M., Pilla, F., Heyman, M. J. Dairy Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Transgenic alteration of sow milk to improve piglet growth and health. Wheeler, M.B., Bleck, G.T., Donovan, S.M. Reprod. Suppl. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Two distinct UDP-galactose: 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose 4 beta-galactosyltransferases in porcine trachea. Sheares, B.T., Carlson, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Biosynthesis of galactosyl-beta 1,3-N-acetylglucosamine. Sheares, B.T., Lau, J.T., Carlson, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of a trifluoroethanol-induced partially folded state of alpha-lactalbumin. Alexandrescu, A.T., Ng, Y.L., Dobson, C.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Hydrogen exchange of the tryptophan residues in bovine, goat, guinea pig, and human alpha-lactalbumin. Harushima, Y., Sugai, S. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. A distinct zinc binding site in the alpha-lactalbumins regulates calcium binding. Is there a physiological role for this control? Murakami, K., Berliner, L.J. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic core of alpha-lactalbumin on the stability of the molten globule state. Uchiyama, H., Perez-Prat, E.M., Watanabe, K., Kumagai, I., Kuwajima, K. Protein Eng. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. alpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell death. Pettersson, J., Mossberg, A.K., Svanborg, C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of a synthetic porcine alpha-lactalbumin gene in the kernels of transgenic maize. Yang, S.H., Moran, D.L., Jia, H.W., Bicar, E.H., Lee, M., Scott, M.P. Transgenic Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Guinea-pig milk-protein synthesis. Isolation and characterization of messenger ribonucleic acids from lactating mammary gland and identification of caseins and pre-alpha-lactalbumin as translation products in heterologous cell-free systems. Craig, R.K., Brown, P.A., Harrison, O.S., McIlreavy, D., Campbell, P.N. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Sexual dimorphism in the permeability response of coronary microvessels to adenosine. Huxley, V.H., Wang, J., Whitt, S.P. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Amino terminal sequence, processing, and biological activity of porcine pre-alpha-lactalbumin. Raymond, M.N., Gaye, P., Hue, D., Haze, G., Mercier, J.C. Biochimie (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Mucosal in vitro permeability in the intestinal tract of the pig, the rat, and man: species- and region-related differences. Nejdfors, P., Ekelund, M., Jeppsson, B., Weström, B.R. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Column-friendly reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of peptides and proteins using formic acid with sodium chloride and dynamic column coating with crown ethers. Poll, D.J., Harding, D.R. J. Chromatogr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of the epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-linking sites in alpha-lactalbumin polymerized by mammalian and microbial transglutaminases. Lee, D.S., Matsumoto, S., Matsumura, Y., Mori, T. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of human immunoglobulins E and G to purified cow's milk proteins: application in diagnosis of cow's milk allergy. Campbell, D.E., Ngamphaiboon, J., Clark, M.M., Harris, M.C., Kolski, G.B., Douglas, S.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Protein gamma-radiolysis in frozen solutions is a macromolecular surface phenomenon: fragmentation of lysozyme, citrate synthase and alpha-lactalbumin in native or denatured states. Audette, M., Chen, X., Houée-Levin, C., Potier, M., Le Maire, M. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Hormonal induction of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin in cultured mammary explants from pregnant pigs. Dodd, S.C., Forsyth, I.A., Buttle, H.L., Gurr, M.I., Dils, R.R. J. Dairy Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the molecular-chaperone function of the heat-shock-cognate-70-interacting protein. Bruce, B.D., Churchich, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species. Kaminogawa, S., Shimoda, M., Kurisaki, J., Yamauchi, K. J. Dairy Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein dissection enhances the amyloidogenic properties of alpha-lactalbumin. de Laureto, P.P., Frare, E., Battaglia, F., Mossuto, M.F., Uversky, V.N., Fontana, A. FEBS J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Purification and characterization of mouse alpha-lactalbumin from lactating mammary glands. Bhattacharjee, M., Vonderhaar, B.K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1983) [Pubmed]
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