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Gene Review

PRL  -  prolactin

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of PRL

  • These adaptations in the beta-cell may play an important role in maintaining the basal hyperinsulinemia of pregnancy while limiting the capacity of PRL and PRG to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during late gestation [1].
  • These findings raise the possibility of a functional role for the glycosylated variant of PRL in the initiation and/or maintenance of events associated with pregnancy and obesity in the pig [2].
  • The possibility that the two physiological opposing actions of DA on PRL secretion might be mediated by different GTP binding proteins was also examined using cholera toxin (CTX) and pertussis toxin (PTX) [3].
  • Thirty minutes later, the cells were fixed and plaques (zones of hemolysis) surrounding PRL-producing cells (lactotrophs) were measured and used as an index of the amount of PRL secreted [3].
  • A common pathway may contribute to other independent mechanisms controlling the release of ACTH and PRL after hemorrhage [4].

Psychiatry related information on PRL

  • These results indicate that TRH-induced and not basal PRL secretion is influenced by both season and social interaction of boars [5].

High impact information on PRL


Chemical compound and disease context of PRL


Biological context of PRL


Anatomical context of PRL

  • Addition of the combination of FSH, LH and PRL during the period of oocyte maturation marginally improved male pronuclear formation rates (41.3 vs 55.6%; P=0.06) [18].
  • These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland [19].
  • Using double labeling experiments, we have previously shown that receptor-bound LH and PRL can be colocalized in identical endosomes of granulosa cells [20].
  • As much as 40% of PRL in the pituitary gland of the pig is glycosylated [21].
  • When these antisera were administered to normal cycling rats, the most pronounced effect was an increase in the number of corpora lutea, presumably due to the prevention of the luteolytic effect of PRL [22].

Associations of PRL with chemical compounds

  • DEX alone or combined with PRL and PRG inhibited insulin secretion in response to 16 mM glucose-stimulating concentrations [1].
  • Here, we used the glucose-responsive MIN6 beta-cell line treated with prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid), all elevated during late pregnancy, to study their effects on mechanisms of insulin secretion [1].
  • In parallel studies, PRL was unable to mimic the effects of GH on iIGF-I or progesterone secretion [23].
  • After exposure to estrogen, galanin and PRL were colocalized within the same secretory granules of the male and OVEX pituitary cells [24].
  • The reverse hemolytic plaque assay (RHPA) was used in this study to further characterize the mechanism whereby low concentrations of dopamine (DA) stimulate PRL secretion in vitro [3].

Physical interactions of PRL


Regulatory relationships of PRL


Other interactions of PRL

  • This study provides strong evidence that relaxin has a central role in modulating PRL secretion in the pig [30].
  • Throughout the study, blood samples were collected, and serum was harvested to quantitate circulating concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen, GH, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and PRL [31].
  • Results from this study provide strong evidence that the antagonistic effect of RU 486 on progesterone receptor results in an abrupt increase in PRL and progesterone secretion in hysterectomized gilts with aging corpora lutea [32].
  • In contrast to PRL, both the glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of GH showed a steady rate of increase throughout the observation period [33].
  • Thus intracellular transduction of the PRL signal may involve activation of PKC that is not dependent on PI-PLC [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRL

  • It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake [34].
  • Ovariectomized gilts were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the anterior vena cava to determine sequential serum profiles of PRL secretion before, during, and 190 h after cranial surgery [35].
  • Intravenous injection of LM (3 nmol/100 g BW) also raised plasma PRL levels in these animals [36].
  • Quantitative estimates of the immunoblotting results revealed marked differences with age in the secretion of the two monomeric forms of PRL [21].
  • In contrast, PRL concentrations in the control group remained unchanged after injection [30].


  1. Prolactin, progesterone, and dexamethasone coordinately and adversely regulate glucokinase and cAMP/PDE cascades in MIN6 beta-cells. Shao, J., Qiao, L., Friedman, J.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in the glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of prolactin and growth hormone in lean and obese pigs during pregnancy. Sinha, Y.N., Klemcke, H.G., Maurer, R.R., Jacobsen, B.P. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on prolactin secretion involve different G-proteins. Burris, T.P., Nguyen, D.N., Smith, S.G., Freeman, M.E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Response of prolactin to hemorrhage is similar to that of adrenocorticotropin in swine. Carlson, D.E., Klemcke, H.G., Gann, D.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence of season and social environment on basal and thyrotropin releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in the adult domestic boar. Trudeau, V.L., van de Wiel, D.F., Erkens, J., Sanford, L.M. Acta Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Oestrogens regulate divergent effects of prolactin in the ovary. Veldhuis, J.D., Hammond, J.M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of prolactin in pigs by Escherichia coli endotoxin. Smith, B.B., Wagner, W.C. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Insulin suppresses growth hormone secretion by rat pituitary cells. Melmed, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA (galanin) clone from estrogen-induced pituitary tumor messenger RNA. Vrontakis, M.E., Peden, L.M., Duckworth, M.L., Friesen, H.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of prolactin on conceptus survival and uterine secretory activity in pigs. Young, K.H., Kraeling, R.R., Bazer, F.W. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of the counterregulatory hormone response to semisynthetic human insulin and purified porcine insulin in normal subjects and patients with type I diabetes mellitus. LeRoith, D., Shemer, J., Pickens, W., Leslie, N., Sperling, M., Berelowitz, M. Clinical therapeutics. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on prolactin in lactating sows. Smith, B.B., Wagner, W.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of lactogenesis in transgenic virgin pigs: evidence for gene and integration site-specific hormonal regulation. Shamay, A., Pursel, V.G., Wall, R.J., Hennighausen, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of cloned prolactin-inducible genes in pigeon crop. Pukac, L.A., Horseman, N.D. Mol. Endocrinol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Reorientation of prostaglandin F secretion by calcium ionophore, estradiol, and prolactin in perifused porcine endometrium. Gross, T.S., Mirando, M.A., Young, K.H., Beers, S., Bazer, F.W., Thatcher, W.W. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of the uteroferrin gene promoter in endometrial cells: interactions among estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin. Fliss, A.E., Michel, F.J., Chen, C.L., Hofig, A., Bazer, F.W., Chou, J.Y., Simmen, R.C. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone-stimulated TSH release and TSH concentration in the guinea pig pituitary, as determined by a heterologous radioimmunoassay. DeVito, W.J., Allen, E., Wu, C.F., Alex, S., Emerson, C.H. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. FSH-stimulated follicular secretions enhance oocyte maturation in pigs. Ding, J., Foxcroft, G.R. Theriogenology (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain. Katoh, M., Djiane, J., Kelly, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Heterologous down-modulation of luteinizing hormone receptors by prolactin: a flow cytometry study. Lane, T.A., Chen, T.T. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Glycosylated prolactin in porcine plasma: immunoblotic measurement from birth to one year of age. Sinha, Y.N., Campion, D.R., Jacobsen, B.P., Lewis, U.J. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. In vivo effects of antisera to prolactin receptors in female rats. Bohnet, H.G., Shiu, R.P., Grinwich, D., Friesen, H.G. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Concomitant effects of growth hormone on secretion of insulin-like growth factor I and progesterone by cultured porcine granulosa cells. Hsu, C.J., Hammond, J.M. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Colocalization of galanin and prolactin within secretory granules of anterior pituitary cells in estrogen-treated Fischer 344 rats. Hyde, J.F., Engle, M.G., Maley, B.E. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Prolactin binding analysis and immunohistochemical localization of prolactin receptor in porcine ovarian cells. Słomczyńska, M., Gregoraszczuk, E., Kochman, K., Stokłosowa, S. Endocr. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Assessment of the mechanism by which prolactin stimulates progesterone production by early corpora lutea of pigs. Ciereszko, R.E., Petroff, B.K., Ottobre, A.C., Guan, Z., Stokes, B.T., Ottobre, J.S. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Synergistic effects of insulin-like growth factor I and gonadotrophins on relaxin and progesterone secretion by ageing corpora lutea of pigs. Huang, C.J., Li, Y., Stromer, M.H., Anderson, L.L. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Prolactin stimulates transcription of aspartate aminotransferase in prostate cells. Franklin, R.B., Ekiko, D.B., Costello, L.C. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of nutrition on pregnant and lactating sows. Einarsson, S., Rojkittikhun, T. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Stimulation of prolactin secretion in the pig: central effects of relaxin and the antiprogesterone RU 486. Li, Y., Huang, C., Klindt, J., Anderson, L.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Endocrine and metabolite responses to porcine growth hormone administered by sustained release implant for different lengths of time in male pigs. Klindt, J., Buonomo, F.C., Wise, T., Yen, J.T. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Divergent effects of antiprogesterone, RU 486, on progesterone, relaxin, and prolactin secretion in pregnant and hysterectomized pigs with aging corpora lutea. Li, Y.F., Huang, C.J., Klindt, J., Anderson, L.L. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Ontogeny of glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of prolactin and growth hormone in porcine pituitary during fetal life. Sinha, Y.N., Klemcke, H.G., Maurer, R.R., Jacobsen, B.P. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. The effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat. Murphy, B.D., Rajkumar, K., McKibbin, P.E., Macdonald, G.J., Buhr, M.M., Grinwich, D.L. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Prolactin secretion after hypophysial stalk transection in pigs. Anderson, L.L., Berardinelli, J.G., Malven, P.V., Ford, J.J. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  36. Stimulation by leumorphin of prolactin secretion from the pituitary in rats. Tojo, K., Kato, Y., Ohta, H., Matsushita, N., Shimatsu, A., Kabayama, Y., Inoue, T., Yanaihara, N., Imura, H. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
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