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Gene Review

PBX2  -  pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: G17, HOX12, Homeobox protein PBX2, PBX2MHC, Pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 2, ...
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Disease relevance of PBX2

  • In addition, we applied a competitive selection procedure to target phage antibodies to the desired portion of a recombinant fusion protein and to select phage antibodies capable of discriminating between the two highly homologous homeobox proteins PBX1a and PBX2 [1].
  • PBX proteins are highly expressed in HOX11 immortalized/transformed hematopoietic cells; in particular, the 10q24 translocation-carrying T-ALL Sil and K3P lines were found to selectively express PBX2 [2].
  • Overexpression of PREP-1 in F9 teratocarcinoma cells leads to a functionally relevant increase of PBX-2 by preventing its degradation [3].
  • DNA sequence analysis of 5.5 kb of DNA corresponding to the G17 gene has revealed that it encodes PBX2, a homeodomain-containing protein with extensive similarity to PBX1 (which is involved in t(1;19) chromosomal translocations in acute pre-B-cell leukemias) [4].
  • AIM: To explore the effect of gastrin 17 (G17) on beta-catenin/T cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) signaling in colonic cancer cell line Colo320WT [5].

High impact information on PBX2

  • By performing Western blottings and supershift assays, the binding proteins were identified as homeodomain proteins, MEIS1, PBX1B, and PBX2 [6].
  • HOXA9 forms triple complexes with PBX2 and MEIS1 in myeloid cells [7].
  • Here we demonstrate that the homeodomains encoded by PBX1, as well as by the highly related PBX2 and PBX3 genes, bind the DNA sequence ATCAATCAA [8].
  • Similar to PBX1 RNA, PBX3 RNA is alternatively spliced to yield two translation products with different carboxy termini, a feature not observed for PBX2 [9].
  • We show that overexpression of PREP-1 influences the level of PBX-2 protein maintaining the PREP-1-PBX balance [3].

Biological context of PBX2


Anatomical context of PBX2

  • Expression of PBX2 or PBX3 was not restricted to particular states of differentiation or development, as mRNA transcripts of these genes were detected in most fetal and adult tissues and all cell lines, unlike PBX1, which is not expressed in lymphoid cell lines [9].
  • First, a PBX2 Regulatory Element PRE-1048 has been identified which contains a novel DNA-binding sequence and mediates significant activation of the HOX11 gene in K562 cells [11].
  • We were unable to stain the small type G4, the medium-sized types G8 and G9, and the large cell types G17 and G18: this suggests that they might not project to the superficial layers of the dorsolateral optic tectum, at least, in the turtle [12].
  • Negative regulators include the Pre B cell homeobox factor (Pbx2) and its dimerization partner, Pbx regulating protein 1 (Prep1) [13].
  • Immunocytochemistry showed that beta-catenin was translocated from the cell membranes into the cytoplasm and nucleus under G17 treatment [5].

Associations of PBX2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PBX2

  • This is the first report of a homeobox gene being specifically regulated by PBX2 and the second report of a vertebrate homeobox target gene of a PBX protein [11].

Other interactions of PBX2


  1. Selection and application of human single chain Fv antibody fragments from a semi-synthetic phage antibody display library with designed CDR3 regions. de Kruif, J., Boel, E., Logtenberg, T. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. TALE homeoproteins as HOX11-interacting partners in T-cell leukemia. Allen, T.D., Zhu, Y.X., Hawley, T.S., Hawley, R.G. Leuk. Lymphoma (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of PREP-1 in F9 teratocarcinoma cells leads to a functionally relevant increase of PBX-2 by preventing its degradation. Longobardi, E., Blasi, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The novel gene G17, located in the human major histocompatibility complex, encodes PBX2, a homeodomain-containing protein. Aguado, B., Campbell, R.D. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of gastrin 17 on beta-catenin/Tcf-4 pathway in Colo320WT colon cancer cells. Cao, J., Yu, J.P., Liu, C.H., Zhou, L., Yu, H.G. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Homeodomain proteins MEIS1 and PBXs regulate the lineage-specific transcription of the platelet factor 4 gene. Okada, Y., Nagai, R., Sato, T., Matsuura, E., Minami, T., Morita, I., Doi, T. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. HOXA9 forms triple complexes with PBX2 and MEIS1 in myeloid cells. Shen, W.F., Rozenfeld, S., Kwong, A., Köm ves, L.G., Lawrence, H.J., Largman, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Fusion with E2A converts the Pbx1 homeodomain protein into a constitutive transcriptional activator in human leukemias carrying the t(1;19) translocation. Lu, Q., Wright, D.D., Kamps, M.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. PBX2 and PBX3, new homeobox genes with extensive homology to the human proto-oncogene PBX1. Monica, K., Galili, N., Nourse, J., Saltman, D., Cleary, M.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Three genes in the human MHC class III region near the junction with the class II: gene for receptor of advanced glycosylation end products, PBX2 homeobox gene and a notch homolog, human counterpart of mouse mammary tumor gene int-3. Sugaya, K., Fukagawa, T., Matsumoto, K., Mita, K., Takahashi, E., Ando, A., Inoko, H., Ikemura, T. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. A complex containing PBX2 contributes to activation of the proto-oncogene HOX11. Brake, R.L., Kees, U.R., Watt, P.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Ganglion cell types of the turtle retina that project to the optic tectum: Intracellular HRP injections of retrogradely, rhodamine-marked cell bodies. Guiloff, G.D., Kolb, H. Vis. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Polymorphic variations in the expression of the chemical detoxifying UDP glucuronosyltransferases. Mackenzie, P.I., Gregory, P.A., Lewinsky, R.H., Yasmin, S.N., Height, T., McKinnon, R.A., Gardner-Stephen, D.A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferase genes. Mackenzie, P.I., Gregory, P.A., Gardner-Stephen, D.A., Lewinsky, R.H., Jorgensen, B.R., Nishiyama, T., Xie, W., Radominska-Pandya, A. Curr. Drug Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. HOXA10, Pbx2, and Meis1 protein expression in the human endometrium: formation of multimeric complexes on HOXA10 target genes. Sarno, J.L., Kliman, H.J., Taylor, H.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Duplex and triplex directed DNA cleavage by oligonucleotide-Cu(II)/Co(III) metallodesferal conjugates. Joshi, R.R., Ganesh, K.N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
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