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Chemical Compound Review

Octoxinol     2-[4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan- 2...

Synonyms: Octoxynol, Octoxinols, Octoxynols, Octoxynol-9, Octoxynol 9, ...
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Disease relevance of Octoxinol


High impact information on Octoxinol

  • Chilled platelets show an increase in the amount of myosin in the Triton-X insoluble residue or 'cytoskeleton' which is correlated in time both with phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and with the induced shape change [6].
  • Many trophozoite-target interfaces were outlined with a ring of polymerized amoeba actin, revealed by rhodamine-phalloidin staining of glutaraldehyde-fixed and Triton-X 100-extracted cells [7].
  • Subsequent analyses showed that the subpool of CD73 released by TX-100 at 4 degrees C was not truly solubilized, but rather represented TX-100-induced release of CD73-containing membrane fragments [8].
  • During ATP depletion, total cellular Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was unaltered, but the Triton-X-100-insoluble fraction (cytoskeleton associated) of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity decreased (P less than 0.01), with a corresponding increase in the detergent-soluble fraction of Na+,K(+)-ATPase (P less than 0.01) [9].
  • Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the TX-insoluble compartment is perinuclear and co-localizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Octoxinol

  • Using recombinant vaccinia viruses that express Sendai virus HN, F, or M protein individually, we observed that each viral protein (F, HN, or M) was independently capable of acquiring TX-100 insolubility in the absence of other viral components [11].
  • The immunogenicity of zwitterionic detergent-disrupted influenza virus vaccine preparations, intact virus vaccine and vaccine preparations obtained by treatment of the intact virus with Triton-X 100 or cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied in hamsters and mice [12].
  • Salting out by dehydration in competition with octoxynol 9 for the available water was observed with sulfate and phosphate anions, sodium, potassium, and ammonium tribasications, and the nonelectrolyte sorbitol [13].
  • Interactions of M1 protein with HA or NA, the influenza virus envelope glycoproteins, were investigated by TX-100 detergent treatment of membrane fractions and floatation in sucrose gradients [14].
  • The effect of surfactants on the biodegradation of trifluralin and atrazine (by Streptomyces PS1/5) and coumaphos (by degrading consortia from a contaminated cattle dip) in liquid cultures and soil slurries was tested at different concentrations of a rhamnolipid mixture (Rh-mix) and Triton X-100 (TX-100) [15].

Biological context of Octoxinol

  • Together, these data imply that CD20 can evoke apoptosis without the involvement of mitochondria and caspases and irrespective of redistribution into TX-100 insoluble membrane rafts [16].
  • Using Triton X-100 (TX-100) as a representative HA, we found that the mtrCDE efflux pump operon could be induced to higher levels of expression when an HA-sensitive strain was exposed to sublethal concentrations of this non-ionic detergent and the structurally related spermicide, nonoxynol-9 [17].
  • The highest percentage of solubilized binding sites (45%) was obtained by treating brain membranes with 1% Triton-X-100 and 0.2% digitonin in 0.5 M potassium phosphate containing 20% glycerol [18].
  • Biochemical and morphological examination of the TX-100 solubility of junctional E-cadherin and gamma-catenin in control and HGF treated cells showed an increase in solubility of only E-cadherin during loss of cell polarity [19].
  • In particular, insertional mutagenesis of loop II prevented the insertion of the mutant protein into the plasma membrane of COS-7 cells and rendered it insoluble in TX-100 [20].

Anatomical context of Octoxinol

  • Cells lacking CD45 showed identical phosphorylation of Lck in GEM and TX-100-soluble membranes [21].
  • Approximately 50% of complexes were titrated into the TX-100-insoluble fraction coincident with the arrival of the complexes at the plasma membrane and the assembly of alpha-catenin [22].
  • Three different in vitro preparations were used to nucleate the polymerization of muscle G-actin: (a) MV core fragments containing "barbed" and "pointed" filament ends exposed by shear during isolation, (b) isolated, membrane-intact brush borders, and (c) brush borders demembranated with Triton-X 100 [23].
  • Here we show that incubation of chicken embryo erythroid cells in a medium in which arginine has been substituted by its amino acid analogue, canavanine, results in the inhibition of the posttranslational assembly of vimentin into the TX-100-insoluble filaments [24].
  • The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities [25].

Associations of Octoxinol with other chemical compounds

  • We analyzed the assembly of cadherin/catenin complexes in the TX-100-soluble fraction by [35S]methionine pulse-chase labeling, followed by sucrose density gradient fractionation of proteins [22].
  • We here show that insolubility of NADPH oxidase subunits in nonionic detergents TX-100, Brij-58, and Brij-98 is a consequence of inclusion into cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) [26].
  • To compare the membrane-associated Lck present in the GEM and TX-100-soluble fractions of Jurkat cells, Lck from each fraction was immunoblotted with antibody to phosphotyrosine [21].
  • The alpha-spectrin nascent polypeptide chains are released quantitatively from the TX-100 cytoskeleton by treatment of lysed cells with puromycin, suggesting that they themselves are not associated with the cytoskeleton [27].
  • Merlin resists solubilization by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100), a property commonly attributed to association with the cytoskeleton [28].
  • Solubilized and concentrated in Triton X-100 micelles, morin can protect human serum albumin from the damage induced by hydroxyl radicals effectively and even can form a kind of protein complex with human serum albumin showing more thermal stability [29].

Gene context of Octoxinol

  • Extraction of transfected SW13Vim(-) cells with Triton-X-100-containing buffers showed that the mutant GFAP was more resistant to solubilization at elevated KCl concentrations [30].
  • In cell fractionation of homogenized fly heads without monovalent cations, all dynamin was in pellet fractions and was minimally susceptible to Triton-X extraction [31].
  • The bulk of apical CD73 ( approximately 60%) was released from the cell surface by treatment with 1% Triton X-100 (TX-100) at 4 degrees C, but such release was not affected by pretreatment with ligand or by prior, antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD73 [8].
  • Accordingly, NF2 patient mutations that encode merlins with enhanced TX-100 solubility have been explained previously in terms of loss of cytoskeletal attachment [28].
  • Membraneous P2X4 and P2X6 receptors resisted extraction with Triton-X 100, whereas cytoplasmic P2X receptors were Triton-X 100 soluble [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Octoxinol


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  7. Rapid polymerization of Entamoeba histolytica actin induced by interaction with target cells. Bailey, G.B., Day, D.B., Gasque, J.W. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Surface expression, polarization, and functional significance of CD73 in human intestinal epithelia. Strohmeier, G.R., Lencer, W.I., Patapoff, T.W., Thompson, L.F., Carlson, S.L., Moe, S.J., Carnes, D.K., Mrsny, R.J., Madara, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  10. TNF-alpha induced c-IAP1/TRAF2 complex translocation to a Ubc6-containing compartment and TRAF2 ubiquitination. Wu, C.J., Conze, D.B., Li, X., Ying, S.X., Hanover, J.A., Ashwell, J.D. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Interaction of Sendai viral F, HN, and M proteins with host cytoskeletal and lipid components in Sendai virus-infected BHK cells. Sanderson, C.M., Avalos, R., Kundu, A., Nayak, D.P. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of a zwitterionic detergent for the preparation of an influenza virus vaccine: 2. Immunogenicity of Empigen-treated virus in animals. Mukhlis, F.A., Crawford, C.R., Jennings, R., Potter, C.W. Vaccine (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of inorganic additives on solutions of nonionic surfactants VI: Further cloud point relations. Schott, H., Royce, A.E. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Transport of viral proteins to the apical membranes and interaction of matrix protein with glycoproteins in the assembly of influenza viruses. Barman, S., Ali, A., Hui, E.K., Adhikary, L., Nayak, D.P. Virus Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of rhamnolipids and triton X-100 on the biodegradation of three pesticides in aqueous phase and soil slurries. Mata-Sandoval, J.C., Karns, J., Torrents, A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. CD20-induced lymphoma cell death is independent of both caspases and its redistribution into triton X-100 insoluble membrane rafts. Chan, H.T., Hughes, D., French, R.R., Tutt, A.L., Walshe, C.A., Teeling, J.L., Glennie, M.J., Cragg, M.S. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Induction of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires MtrA, an AraC-like protein. Rouquette, C., Harmon, J.B., Shafer, W.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Solubilization of kainic acid binding sites from rat brain. Hampson, D.R., Huie, D., Wenthold, R.J. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Dynamics of E-cadherin and gamma-catenin complexes during dedifferentiation of polarized MDCK cells. Balkovetz, D.F., Sambandam, V. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Subcellular localization and detergent solubility of MVP17/rMAL, a lipid raft-associated protein in oligodendrocytes and myelin. Kim, T., Pfeiffer, S.E. J. Neurosci. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Exclusion of CD45 inhibits activity of p56lck associated with glycolipid-enriched membrane domains. Rodgers, W., Rose, J.K. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Dynamics of cadherin/catenin complex formation: novel protein interactions and pathways of complex assembly. Hinck, L., Näthke, I.S., Papkoff, J., Nelson, W.J. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Nucleated polymerization of actin from the membrane-associated ends of microvillar filaments in the intestinal brush border. Mooseker, M.S., Pollard, T.D., Wharton, K.A. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Canavanine inhibits vimentin assembly but not its synthesis in chicken embryo erythroid cells. Moon, R.T., Lazarides, E. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells. Zurzolo, C., van't Hof, W., van Meer, G., Rodriguez-Boulan, E. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase depends on cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains for assembly. Vilhardt, F., van Deurs, B. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Synthesis of spectrin in avian erythroid cells: association of nascent polypeptide chains with the cytoskeleton. Blikstad, I., Lazarides, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Activation of the tumor suppressor merlin modulates its interaction with lipid rafts. Stickney, J.T., Bacon, W.C., Rojas, M., Ratner, N., Ip, W. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of Triton X-100 nanoaggregates on dimerization and antioxidant activity of morin. Liu, W., Guo, R. Mol. Pharm. (2008) [Pubmed]
  30. Alexander-disease mutation of GFAP causes filament disorganization and decreased solubility of GFAP. Hsiao, V.C., Tian, R., Long, H., Der Perng, M., Brenner, M., Quinlan, R.A., Goldman, J.E. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Unique biochemical and behavioral alterations in Drosophila shibire(ts1) mutants imply a conformational state affecting dynamin subcellular distribution and synaptic vesicle cycling. Chen, M.L., Green, D., Liu, L., Lam, Y.C., Mukai, L., Rao, S., Ramagiri, S., Krishnan, K.S., Engel, J.E., Lin, J.J., Wu, C.F. J. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. P2X4 and P2X6 receptors associate with VE-cadherin in human endothelial cells. Glass, R., Loesch, A., Bodin, P., Burnstock, G. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of an epithelial protein related to the desmosome and intermediate filament network. Ouyang, P., Sugrue, S.P. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Binding of calmodulin to the microfilament network correlates with induction of a macrophage tumoricidal response. Mecham, J.O., Soong, M.M., Cain, C.A., Koehm, S., Goff, J., Tompkins, W.A. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Declining histone phosphorylation during myogenesis revealed by in vivo and in vitro labeling. Lough, J. Exp. Cell Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
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