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Gene Review

LSR  -  lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ILDR3, LISCH, LISCH7, Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor
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Disease relevance of LSR

  • The calcium content of the longitudinal SR (LSR) during tetanus did not show the LSR to be a major site of calcium storage and delayed return to the TC [1].
  • Critical residues of the Mycobacterium leprae LSR recombinant protein discriminate clinical activity in erythema nodosum leprosum reactions [2].
  • Changes in total thrombus area (TTA) under low shear rate (LSR; 212 s(-1)) and high shear rate (HSR; 1690 s(-1)) conditions were measured, using the ex vivo Badimon perfusion chamber model pre-dose and 2 and 5 hours after dosing on Day 6, and capillary bleeding times (CBT) were determined [3].
  • METHODS: In the Lausanne Stroke Registry (LSR, 1983-1998), we determined the patterns of clinical presentation, lesion topography and mechanisms of stroke, among 117 patients with s-PCA infarction (s-PCAI) on brain imaging [4].
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 10776 were used as starters to ferment various composite blends of cereals and legumes produced through malting and toasting of two varieties of maize--Zea mays (DMR-LSR white & DMR-ESR yellow), sorghum--Sorghum bicolor (Dawa white & Dawa red) and one variety of soybeans (Glycine ax) [5].

High impact information on LSR

  • LSR affinity is highest for the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons, and very low density lipoprotein [6].
  • Transient transfections of LSR alpha alone in Chinese hamster ovary cells increased oleate-induced binding and uptake of lipoproteins, while cotransfection of both LSR alpha and beta increased oleate-induced proteolytic degradation of the particles [6].
  • Screening of expression libraries with these antibodies led to identification of mRNAs derived by alternate splicing from a single gene and coding for proteins with molecular masses matching that of LSR alpha and beta [6].
  • We have, in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, characterized a lipolysis-stimulated receptor (LSR) [7].
  • The apparent number of LSR that are available on rat liver plasma membranes is negatively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentrations measured in the fed state [7].

Biological context of LSR

  • Both the latter data and analysis of the mechanism of inhibition were consistent with the RAP inhibitory effect on LSR being achieved by interference with a site distinct from the oleate-induced LDL binding site [8].
  • In contrast, VLDL isolated from a Type III hyperlipidemic patient (apoE2/2 phenotype) failed to bind to the LSR [9].
  • By mutagenesis analysis of enhancer I function in the enhancer I/X gene promoter complex, we characterized a specific transcriptional regulatory region (designated as a LSR element, nt 989-1030) of enhancer I for the X gene promoter by means of the transient transfection technique using hepatic and nonhepatic cells [10].
  • Ca2+ release from Ca2+ preloaded SR vesicles by changing the medium from K-gluconate to KCl was suppressed by addition of 0.3 M sucrose or glucose; there was no correlation between Ca2+ release and membrane potential change either in LSR or HSR vesicles [11].
  • Extensive sequence homology between the mycobacterium leprae LSR (12 kDa) antigen and its Mycobacterium tuberculosis counterpart [12].

Anatomical context of LSR

  • Studies using isolated rat liver plasma membranes showed that enrichment of human VLDL and chylomicrons with synthetic or purified human apoC-III decreased their binding to the LSR by about 40% [7].
  • Data reported here show that in fibroblasts isolated from a subject homozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia, RAP fusion protein inhibited LSR-mediated binding of 125I-LDL and the subsequent internalization and degradation of the particles [8].
  • Studies on the interaction of RAP with LSR in isolated rat liver membranes revealed that at concentrations > or = 10 micrograms/ml, RAP inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the binding of LDL to LSR; half-maximum inhibition was obtained with 20 micrograms/ml RAP [8].
  • The data acquisition was performed on a DakoCytomation MoFlo, a Becton Dickinson LSR and a Becton Dickinson FACSAria to compare the ability of each instrument to discriminate putative stem cells [13].
  • In conclusion, the M. leprae LSR protein antigen can be recognized by human T cells in the context of multiple HLA-DR molecules, of which none are reported to be associated with the susceptibility to develop leprosy [14].

Associations of LSR with chemical compounds

  • Ximelagatran plus ASA significantly reduced TTA under LSR and HSR, compared with ASA alone [3].
  • Total platelet-thrombus area was reduced significantly in both groups, but the degree of reduction was lower in the bivalirudin group compared with the eptifibatide group (HSR: 69.5% vs. 89.3% reduction, respectively, P=0.04; LSR: 50.6% vs. 73.2%, P=0.03) [15].
  • The recent availability of octreotide (OC)-LAR, a somatostatin analog to be administered at 28-day intervals, has prompted us to compare, in the same group of patients, its effects and those of another somatostatin analog already available, lanreotide-SR (LSR, to be administered at 14-day intervals) [16].
  • A change in LSR expression and parallel inverse change in plasma triglycerides is observed in rats treated with hyperlipidemic (retinoic acid) or hypolipidemic (fish oil in MaxEPA) agents, indicating that LSR represents a definite target for pharmacological management of hyperlipidemia [17].
  • After ammonium chloride lysis, cells were stained and analyzed on a Becton-Dickinson LSR II with a 5-color antibody panel: FITC-anti-CD31, PE-anti-CD146, PE-anti-CD133, PerCP-Cy5.5-anti-CD3,-CD19,-CD33 (lineage panel), PE-Cy7-anti-CD34, and APC-anti-VEGF-R2 [18].

Physical interactions of LSR

  • However, occupancy of the site by the apoprotein ligand stabilized the active form of LSR [19].

Regulatory relationships of LSR

  • Furthermore, in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, oleate stimulated binding, uptake, and degradation of LDL with kinetic characteristics similar to that of LSR expressed in FH fibroblasts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[9]
  • That LSR provides a new candidate receptor contributing to the clearance of chylomicron remnants (CMR) is supported by the observation that LSR was inhibited by lactoferrin, a milk protein that delays CMR clearance when injected in vivo [9].

Other interactions of LSR

  • This oleate-activated receptor is genetically distinct from the LDL receptor and is hereafter referred to as the lipolysis-stimulated receptor (LSR) [9].
  • In cultured human and rat cells, the lipolysis-stimulated receptor (LSR), when activated by free fatty acids (FFA), mediates the binding of apoprotein B- and apoprotein E-containing lipoproteins and their subsequent internalization and degradation [19].
  • Clinical utility of LSR/A15 gene for Mycobacterium leprae detection in leprosy tissues using the polymerase chain reaction [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LSR


  1. Calcium release and ionic changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of tetanized muscle: an electron-probe study. Somlyo, A.V., Gonzalez-Serratos, H.G., Shuman, H., McClellan, G., Somlyo, A.P. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Critical residues of the Mycobacterium leprae LSR recombinant protein discriminate clinical activity in erythema nodosum leprosum reactions. Singh, S., Jenner, P.J., Narayan, N.P., Ramu, G., Colston, M.J., Prasad, H.K., Nath, I. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Antithrombotic effects of ximelagatran plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel plus ASA in a human ex vivo arterial thrombosis model. Wåhlander, K., Eriksson-Lepkowska, M., Nyström, P., Eriksson, U.G., Sarich, T.C., Badimon, J.J., Kalies, I., Elg, M., Bylock, A. Thromb. Haemost. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in The Lausanne Stroke Registry. Cals, N., Devuyst, G., Afsar, N., Karapanayiotides, T., Bogousslavsky, J. J. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of process improvement on the physico-chemical properties of infant weaning food from fermented composite blends of cereal and soybeans. Onilude, A.A., Sanni, A.I., Ighalo, M.I. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning of a lipolysis-stimulated remnant receptor expressed in the liver. Yen, F.T., Masson, M., Clossais-Besnard, N., André, P., Grosset, J.M., Bougueleret, L., Dumas, J.B., Guerassimenko, O., Bihain, B.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibitory effects of specific apolipoprotein C-III isoforms on the binding of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to the lipolysis-stimulated receptor. Mann, C.J., Troussard, A.A., Yen, F.T., Hannouche, N., Najib, J., Fruchart, J.C., Lotteau, V., André, P., Bihain, B.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibitory effect on the lipolysis-stimulated receptor of the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. Troussard, A.A., Khallou, J., Mann, C.J., André, P., Strickland, D.K., Bihain, B.E., Yen, F.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a lipolysis-stimulated receptor that is distinct from the LDL receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein. Yen, F.T., Mann, C.J., Guermani, L.M., Hannouche, N.F., Hubert, N., Hornick, C.A., Bordeau, V.N., Agnani, G., Bihain, B.E. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of a specific region in the hepatitis B virus enhancer I for the efficient expression of X gene in the hepatic cell. Fukai, K., Takada, S., Yokosuka, O., Saisho, H., Omata, M., Koike, K. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles derived from longitudinal reticulum and terminal cisternae of frog skeletal muscle. Koshita, M., Yamamoto, M., Hotta, K. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Extensive sequence homology between the mycobacterium leprae LSR (12 kDa) antigen and its Mycobacterium tuberculosis counterpart. Oftung, F., Mustafa, A.S., Wiker, H.G. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Out of the blue: a comparison of Hoechst side population (SP) analysis of murine bone marrow using 325, 363 and 407 nm excitation sources. Simpson, C., Pearce, D.J., Bonnet, D., Davies, D. J. Immunol. Methods (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Human T cell recognition of the Mycobacterium leprae LSR antigen: epitopes and HLA restriction. Oftung, F., Lundin, K.E., Meloen, R., Mustafa, A.S. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Anti-thrombotic effect of bivalirudin compared with eptifibatide and unfractionated heparin in diabetic patients: an ex vivo human study. Lev, E.I., Patel, R., Karim, A., Kleiman, A., Badimon, J.J., Kleiman, N.S. Thromb. Haemost. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparison between octreotide-LAR and lanreotide-SR in the chronic treatment of acromegaly. Cozzi, R., Dallabonzana, D., Attanasio, R., Barausse, M., Oppizzi, G. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Lipolysis-stimulated receptor: a newcomer on the lipoprotein research scene. Bihain, B.E., Delplanque, B., Khallou, J., Chevreuil, O., Troussard, A.A., Michel, L., Mann, C.J., Yen, F.T. Diabète & métabolisme. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Flow cytometric measurement of circulating endothelial cells: the effect of age and peripheral arterial disease on baseline levels of mature and progenitor populations. Shaffer, R.G., Greene, S., Arshi, A., Supple, G., Bantly, A., Moore, J.S., Mohler, E.R. Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Mechanism of activation and functional significance of the lipolysis-stimulated receptor. Evidence for a role as chylomicron remnant receptor. Mann, C.J., Khallou, J., Chevreuil, O., Troussard, A.A., Guermani, L.M., Launay, K., Delplanque, B., Yen, F.T., Bihain, B.E. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical utility of LSR/A15 gene for Mycobacterium leprae detection in leprosy tissues using the polymerase chain reaction. Misra, N., Ramesh, V., Misra, R.S., Narayan, N.P., Colston, M.J., Nath, I. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
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