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Disease relevance of Soybeans

  • Bacteroid suspensions of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 136 isolated from soybeans grown in Mo-deficient conditions were able to transport molybdate at a nearly constant rate for up to 1 min [1].
  • After further adjusting for potentially anticarcinogenic constituents of these foods, high carotenoid vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, garlic, and tofu (or soybeans) remained inversely associated with polyps [2].
  • To test this hypothesis we examined the effect of genistein, the major phytoestrogen found in soybeans, on carbachol-induced relaxation in phenylephrine-constricted pulmonary artery rings isolated from normoxic rats and rats exposed to 14 days of hypobaric hypoxia [3].
  • Identification of a nodD-dependent locus in the Rhizobium strain NGR234 activated by phenolic factors secreted by soybeans and other legumes [4].
  • A novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, a causative agent of bacterial pustule disease on soybeans, was studied at the functional and molecular levels [5].

Psychiatry related information on Soybeans


High impact information on Soybeans

  • The nutritional quality of soybeans (Glycine max) is compromised by a relative deficiency of methionine in the protein fraction of the seeds [7].
  • Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans [7].
  • BACKGROUND: The isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and their glycosides, found in high concentrations in soybeans and soy-protein foods, may have beneficial effects in the prevention or treatment of many hormone-dependent diseases [8].
  • The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed [9].
  • Preliminary greenhouse studies also demonstrated that application of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans suppressed Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Soybeans


Biological context of Soybeans


Anatomical context of Soybeans

  • After the cross-linked complexes were solubilized from liver microsomes with 0.2% Triton X-100 and gel-filtered, they did not interact with the lectins wheat germ agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Ricinus communis agglutinin, and soy bean agglutinin [21].
  • DC fail to develop in bone marrow cultures treated with soy bean trypsin inhibitor, a serine protease inhibitor, but this inhibition is overcome by a PAR-2 agonist peptide [22].
  • However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk [23].
  • This 30-kDa protease, which we have termed ovochymase, was isolated from the exudate of activated eggs using a soy bean trypsin inhibitor-agarose affinity column [24].
  • After one woman received a moderate challenge with 20 g roasted soybeans (equivalent to 37 mg isoflavones), we detected mean total isoflavone concentrations of approximately 2.0 micromol/L in plasma, 0.2 micromol/L in breast milk, and 3.0 micromol/h in urine [25].

Associations of Soybeans with chemical compounds

  • To improve the nutritional quality, methionine-rich 2S albumin from the Brazil nut (Betholletia excelsa) has been introduced into transgenic soybeans [7].
  • Alison Van Eennemaan and colleagues used seed-specific expression of two vitamin E pathway methyltransferases to engineer increased vitamin E activity in soybeans [26].
  • Soybeans, Glycine max, synthesize a family of low-molecular-weight heat shock (HS) proteins in response to HS [27].
  • Genistein, a natural isoflavone found in soybeans, exerts a number of biological actions suggesting that it may have a role in cancer prevention [28].
  • By comparison with solubilized enzyme, liposome-bound acrosin had a substantial reduction in the apparent affinity for "progressive" inhibitors such as leupeptin, lima bean trypsin inhibitor, soy bean trypsin inhibitor, and for a proteinase inhibitor from sperm extracts [29].

Gene context of Soybeans

  • A soybean (Glycine max) MIPS cDNA (GmMIPS1) was isolated by reverse transcriptase-PCR using consensus primers designed from highly conserved regions in other plant MIPS sequences [30].
  • Recently, however, polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC), an innocuous mixture of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines extracted from soybeans (and its active component dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine), were discovered to decrease CYP2E1 activity [31].
  • Deletion analyses of the Glycine max (Gm) Enod40 promoter revealed the presence of a minimal region -185 bp upstream of the transcription start [32].
  • In this report, it was observed that an acidic methanolic extract of soybeans contains compounds that inhibit thyroid peroxidase- (TPO) catalyzed reactions essential to thyroid hormone synthesis [33].
  • Genistein, a naturally occurring isoflavonoid primarily found in soybeans, interacts with estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER alpha and beta), with preferential affinity for ER beta [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Soybeans


  1. Molybdate transport by Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids. Maier, R.J., Graham, L. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Relation of vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption to colorectal adenomatous polyps. Witte, J.S., Longnecker, M.P., Bird, C.L., Lee, E.R., Frankl, H.D., Haile, R.W. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Phytoestrogens restore nitric oxide-mediated relaxation in isolated pulmonary arteries from chronically hypoxic rats. Karamsetty, M.R., Klinger, J.R., Hill, N.S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a nodD-dependent locus in the Rhizobium strain NGR234 activated by phenolic factors secreted by soybeans and other legumes. Bassam, B.J., Djordjevic, M.A., Redmond, J.W., Batley, M., Rolfe, B.G. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular and functional characterization of a unique sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. Kim, H.S., Park, H.J., Heu, S., Jung, J. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Seizure duration in unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. A comparison of the anaesthetic agents etomidate and Althesin with methohexitone. Gran, L., Bergsholm, P., Bleie, H. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans. Nordlee, J.A., Taylor, S.L., Townsend, J.A., Thomas, L.A., Bush, R.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Exposure of infants to phyto-oestrogens from soy-based infant formula. Setchell, K.D., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J., Heubi, J.E. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Sink limitation induces the expression of multiple soybean vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs while the endogenous jasmonic acid level remains low. Bunker, T.W., Koetje, D.S., Stephenson, L.C., Creelman, R.A., Mullet, J.E., Grimes, H.D. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean. Feng, P.C., Baley, G.J., Clinton, W.P., Bunkers, G.J., Alibhai, M.F., Paulitz, T.C., Kidwell, K.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Chemical control of interstrain competition for soybean nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Cunningham, S., Kollmeyer, W.D., Stacey, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Glyphosate effects on phenolic metabolism of nodulated soybean (Glycine max L. merr.). Hernandez, A., Garcia-Plazaola, J.I., Becerril, J.M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic damage and the inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced genetic damage by the phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, in female ICR mice. Giri, A.K., Lu, L.J. Cancer Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of feeding raw soybeans on polyamine metabolism in chicks and the therapeutic effect of exogenous putrescine. Mogridge, J.L., Smith, T.K., Sousadias, M.G. J. Anim. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Sequential study of pancreatic structure and function during development of pancreatic acinar atrophy in a German shepherd dog. Westermarck, E., Batt, R.M., Vaillant, C., Wiberg, M. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Organization and characterization of genes essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation from Bradyrhizobium japonicum I110. Noti, J.D., Folkerts, O., Turken, A.N., Szalay, A.A. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein. Wei, H., Bowen, R., Cai, Q., Barnes, S., Wang, Y. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. Setchell, K.D., Brown, N.M., Lydeking-Olsen, E. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Lack of mycorrhizal autoregulation and phytohormonal changes in the supernodulating soybean mutant nts1007. Meixner, C., Ludwig-Müller, J., Miersch, O., Gresshoff, P., Staehelin, C., Vierheilig, H. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Genistein induces p21(Cip1/WAF1) expression and blocks the G1 to S phase transition in mouse fibroblast and melanoma cells. Kuzumaki, T., Kobayashi, T., Ishikawa, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. High affinity binding proteins for pancreatic polypeptide on rat liver membranes. Nguyen, T.D., Wolfe, M.S., Heintz, G.G., Whitcomb, D.C., Taylor, I.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Protease-activated receptor-2 signaling triggers dendritic cell development. Fields, R.C., Schoenecker, J.G., Hart, J.P., Hoffman, M.R., Pizzo, S.V., Lawson, J.H. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants. Potter, J.M., Nestel, P.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation and characterization of ovochymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease released during Xenopus laevis egg activation. Lindsay, L.L., Hedrick, J.L. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Isoflavones in human breast milk and other biological fluids. Franke, A.A., Custer, L.J., Tanaka, Y. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. From Arabidopsis to agriculture: engineering improved Vitamin E content in soybean. Sattler, S.E., Cheng, Z., DellaPenna, D. Trends Plant Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Genes for low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins of soybeans: sequence analysis of a multigene family. Nagao, R.T., Czarnecka, E., Gurley, W.B., Schöffl, F., Key, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Distinct Chk2 activation pathways are triggered by genistein and DNA-damaging agents in human melanoma cells. Darbon, J.M., Penary, M., Escalas, N., Casagrande, F., Goubin-Gramatica, F., Baudouin, C., Ducommun, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Acrosin inhibition. Comparisons of membrane-associated and -solubilized enzyme. Straus, J.W., Polakoski, K.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase in soybean. Implications for phytic acid biosynthesis. Hegeman, C.E., Good, L.L., Grabau, E.A. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The discovery of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and its physiologic and pathologic role. Lieber, C.S. Drug Metab. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of promoter activity of the early nodulin Enod40 in Lotus japonicus. Grønlund, M., Roussis, A., Flemetakis, E., Quaedvlieg, N.E., Schlaman, H.R., Umehara, Y., Katinakis, P., Stougaard, J., Spaink, H.P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanisms of action. Divi, R.L., Chang, H.C., Doerge, D.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Estrogen receptor expression in the prostate of rats treated with dietary genistein. Dalu, A., Blaydes, B.S., Bryant, C.W., Latendresse, J.R., Weis, C.C., Barry Delclos, K. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of genistein on endothelial function in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Squadrito, F., Altavilla, D., Crisafulli, A., Saitta, A., Cucinotta, D., Morabito, N., D'Anna, R., Corrado, F., Ruggeri, P., Frisina, N., Squadrito, G. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Genetic length polymorphisms create size variation in proline-rich proteins of the cell wall. Schmidt, J.S., Lindstrom, J.T., Vodkin, L.O. Plant J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Recombinant proteins in newly developed foods: identification of allergenic activity. Lehrer, S.B., Reese, G. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Quantitative analysis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in soy bean oils by high-performance liquid chromatography. Zonta, F., Stancher, B. J. Chromatogr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Effect of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (a soy protein) on in vitro bladder neck/urethral and penile corporal smooth muscle activity. Malkowicz, S.B., Liu, S.P., Broderick, G.A., Wein, A.J., Kennedy, A.R., Levin, R.M. Neurourology and urodynamics. (2003) [Pubmed]
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