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Gene Review

PEG3  -  paternally expressed 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA0287, PW1, Paternally-expressed gene 3 protein, ZKSCAN22, ZNF904, ...
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Disease relevance of PEG3


High impact information on PEG3

  • We conclude that Peg3 is a regulator of the TNF response [5].
  • Muscle cachexia is regulated by a p53-PW1/Peg3-dependent pathway [6].
  • The promoter of PEG-3, PEG-Prom, displays robust expression in a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines with marginal expression in normal cellular counterparts [7].
  • Progression-elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) is a rodent gene identified by subtraction hybridization that displays elevated expression as a function of transformation by diversely acting oncogenes, DNA damage, and cancer cell progression [7].
  • Cancer cell selective tropism was ensured by engineering the expression of the adenoviral E1A protein, necessary for viral replication, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of PEG3


Biological context of PEG3


Anatomical context of PEG3

  • We have demonstrated high levels of PEG3 in the human placenta and have localized the signal to the layer of villous cytotrophoblast cells [13].
  • In the present study we have investigated the pattern of expression of the human PEG3 gene in the early to term placenta, as well as the uterus and ovary, using RT-PCR, northern blot and in situ hybridization [13].
  • The PEG3 promoter is encompassed within a large CpG-rich region that is differentially methylated in fetal tissues [14].
  • Peg3/Pw1 promotes p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing Bax translocation from cytosol to mitochondria [15].
  • Progression Elevated Gene-3 (PEG-3) was cloned using subtraction hybridization as an upregulated transcript associated with transformation and tumor progression of rat embryo fibroblast cells [16].

Associations of PEG3 with chemical compounds

  • The PEG-3 gene is transcriptionally activated in rodent cells, as is gadd34 and MyD116, after treatment with DNA damaging agents, including methyl methanesulfonate and gamma-irradiation [17].
  • Treatment of CypA-KD P19 cells with the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-dC reversed the silencing of Peg3 biallelically [18].
  • Genomic bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR revealed DNA hypermethylation in CypA-KD P19 cells, as the normally unmethylated paternal allele acquired methylation that resulted in biallelic methylation of Peg3 [18].
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated a loss of acetylation and a gain of lysine 9 trimethylation in histone 3, as well as enhanced DNA methyltransferase 1 and MBD2 binding on the cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands of Peg3 [18].
  • However, the combination therapy was statistically significantly superior to fluticasone propionate alone for mean morning PEFR (P<0.001) and other measures of lung function, whilst clinical equivalence of the combination and concurrent therapies was observed [19].

Regulatory relationships of PEG3

  • Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PEG-3 transcriptionally activates VEGF in transformed rodent and human cancer cells [20].

Other interactions of PEG3

  • These observations are striking in light of the structural and functional conservation that typifies other imprinted domains and suggest that the PEG3/ZIM2 imprinted domain may have evolved in an unusual lineage-specific pattern [11].
  • Given the known role of PEG3 in p53-mediated apoptosis, it is possible that PEG3 functions as a tumor suppressor [2].
  • Increase in the activities of the caspases was observed with up-regulation in the expression of FAS (6-8-fold) and PEG3 (2.5-fold), suggesting that the cells experienced apoptotic cell death via both the death receptor and mitochondrial pathways [21].
  • Comparison between mouse Peg3 and partial human PEG3 gene sequences revealed a high level of conservation between the two species, despite the fact that one of the two proline-rich repeats is absent from the human gene [22].
  • Moreover, c-myc, PEG-3, VEGF, and TNFA were also expressed strongly in the glial cells or extra-cellular spaces in the area of peri-tumoural oedema [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PEG3

  • METHODS: PEG3 mRNA levels were measured with real-time PCR from 28 gynecologic cancer cell lines and compared to normal tissues [2].
  • Sequence analysis of the rat Gadd34 gene and comparison with PEG-3 indicates that PEG-3 is most likely a mutant of Gadd34 that perhaps arose as a result of transformation [24].


  1. Tumour suppressor activity of human imprinted gene PEG3 in a glioma cell line. Kohda, T., Asai, A., Kuroiwa, Y., Kobayashi, S., Aisaka, K., Nagashima, G., Yoshida, M.C., Kondo, Y., Kagiyama, N., Kirino, T., Kaneko-Ishino, T., Ishino, F. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Biallelic methylation and silencing of paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) in gynecologic cancer cell lines. Dowdy, S.C., Gostout, B.S., Shridhar, V., Wu, X., Smith, D.I., Podratz, K.C., Jiang, S.W. Gynecol. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The human homologue (PEG3) of the mouse paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3) is maternally imprinted but not mutated in women with familial recurrent hydatidiform molar pregnancies. Van den Veyver, I.B., Norman, B., Tran, C.Q., Bourjac, J., Slim, R. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Parental 19q loss and PEG3 expression in oligodendrogliomas. Trouillard, O., Aguirre-Cruz, L., Hoang-Xuan, K., Marie, Y., Delattre, J.Y., Sanson, M. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Peg3/Pw1 is an imprinted gene involved in the TNF-NFkappaB signal transduction pathway. Relaix, F., Wei, X.J., Wu, X., Sassoon, D.A. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Muscle cachexia is regulated by a p53-PW1/Peg3-dependent pathway. Schwarzkopf, M., Coletti, D., Sassoon, D., Marazzi, G. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeting gene expression selectively in cancer cells by using the progression-elevated gene-3 promoter. Su, Z.Z., Sarkar, D., Emdad, L., Duigou, G.J., Young, C.S., Ware, J., Randolph, A., Valerie, K., Fisher, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Dual cancer-specific targeting strategy cures primary and distant breast carcinomas in nude mice. Sarkar, D., Su, Z.Z., Vozhilla, N., Park, E.S., Gupta, P., Fisher, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Epigenetic silencing of PEG3 gene expression in human glioma cell lines. Maegawa, S., Yoshioka, H., Itaba, N., Kubota, N., Nishihara, S., Shirayoshi, Y., Nanba, E., Oshimura, M. Mol. Carcinog. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple imprinted and stemness genes provide a link between normal and tumor progenitor cells of the developing human kidney. Dekel, B., Metsuyanim, S., Schmidt-Ott, K.M., Fridman, E., Jacob-Hirsch, J., Simon, A., Pinthus, J., Mor, Y., Barasch, J., Amariglio, N., Reisner, Y., Kaminski, N., Rechavi, G. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Lineage-specific imprinting and evolution of the zinc-finger gene ZIM2. Kim, J., Bergmann, A., Lucas, S., Stone, R., Stubbs, L. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Exon sharing of a novel human zinc-finger gene, ZIM2, and paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). Kim, J., Bergmann, A., Stubbs, L. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Paternal monoallelic expression of PEG3 in the human placenta. Hiby, S.E., Lough, M., Keverne, E.B., Surani, M.A., Loke, Y.W., King, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Imprinting of PEG3, the human homologue of a mouse gene involved in nurturing behavior. Murphy, S.K., Wylie, A.A., Jirtle, R.L. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Peg3/Pw1 promotes p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing Bax translocation from cytosol to mitochondria. Deng, Y., Wu, X. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Potential molecular mechanism for rodent tumorigenesis: mutational generation of Progression Elevated Gene-3 (PEG-3). Su, Z.Z., Emdad, L., Sarkar, D., Randolph, A., Valerie, K., Yacoub, A., Dent, P., Fisher, P.B. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Subtraction hybridization identifies a transformation progression-associated gene PEG-3 with sequence homology to a growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene. Su, Z.Z., Shi, Y., Fisher, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclophilin a protects peg3 from hypermethylation and inactive histone modification. Lu, Y.C., Song, J., Cho, H.Y., Fan, G., Yokoyama, K.K., Chiu, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (50/500 microg) in combination in a Diskus inhaler (Seretide) is effective and safe in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Aubier, M., Pieters, W.R., Schlösser, N.J., Steinmetz, K.O. Respiratory medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. PEG-3, a nontransforming cancer progression gene, is a positive regulator of cancer aggressiveness and angiogenesis. Su, Z.Z., Goldstein, N.I., Jiang, H., Wang, M.N., Duigou, G.J., Young, C.S., Fisher, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Glutamine or glucose starvation in hybridoma cultures induces death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Yeo, J.H., Lo, J.C., Nissom, P.M., Wong, V.V. Biotechnol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The human homolog of a mouse-imprinted gene, Peg3, maps to a zinc finger gene-rich region of human chromosome 19q13.4. Kim, J., Ashworth, L., Branscomb, E., Stubbs, L. Genome Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Tissue reconstruction process in the area of peri-tumoural oedema caused by glioblastoma--immunohistochemical and graphical analysis using brain obtained at autopsy. Nagashima, G., Suzuki, R., Asai, J.I., Noda, M., Fujimoto, M., Fujimoto, T. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Gadd34 functional domains involved in growth suppression and apoptosis. Hollander, M.C., Poola-Kella, S., Fornace, A.J. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
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