The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Ccnd2  -  cyclin D2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: G1/S-specific cyclin-D2, Vin-1, Vin-1 proto-oncogene
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ccnd2


High impact information on Ccnd2

  • Cyclin D2 and Ha-Ras transformed rat embryo fibroblasts exhibit a novel deregulation of cell size control and early S phase arrest in low serum [3].
  • While clonal cyclin D2/Ha-Ras REF transformants exhibit a characteristic transformed phenotype in high serum, in low serum they arrest cell proliferation and display profound morphological and cytological changes indicating loss of control of cell mass and deregulation of the G1/S transition [3].
  • Here, we show that cyclin D2 can co-operate with Ha-Ras to impose a novel transformed state on rat embryo fibroblasts (REF) [3].
  • In addition, a drastic induction of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, and to a lesser extent of cyclin D2 mRNA, takes place in mitogen-stimulated cells after the R point [4].
  • Our results strongly support a role of the cyclin D2 gene in oncogenesis and thereby implicate altered cell cycle regulation in transformation [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ccnd2


Biological context of Ccnd2

  • The sequence of the Vin-1 gene is identical to that of the recently identified G1-phase cyclin D2 gene [1].
  • Sequencing of the Vin-1 cDNA and Vin-1 exons revealed that the proviruses are integrated at the 5' end of the Vin-1 gene in an inverse transcriptional orientation [1].
  • The present study therefore shows that the inhibitory effect of DHT on insulin-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation occurs early in the signaling pathway at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, leading to reduced ERK phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cyclin D2 mRNA expression [5].
  • Collectively, these data support an important functional role for cyclin D2 and cdc2 genes in determining the proliferative versus nonproliferative phenotype of AEC during lung development, injury and repair, and transformation [6].
  • However, in low serum, co-operation of cyclin D2 and Ha-Ras provides only a subset of the progression signals and these are sufficient for G1-related cell mass increase and S phase entry, but are insufficient for full cell cycling [3].

Anatomical context of Ccnd2

  • The Vin-1 gene was initially identified as a gene whose expression is altered by the integration of proviruses in the Vin-1 common site of integration in retrovirus-induced rodent T-cell leukemias [1].
  • Forskolin treatment stimulated the expression of cyclin D2 mRNA in control granulosa cells, whereas DHT treatment abolished this response [7].
  • The response to hypertrophic elicitors could be restored in differentiation inducing factor 1-treated myocytes by expressing cyclin D2 from a heterologous promoter [8].
  • Differential expression of cyclin D2 and cdc2 genes in proliferating and nonproliferating alveolar epithelial cells [6].
  • In contrast, high levels of cyclin D2 mRNA and protein expression were only observed in normal 19-day fetal rat AEC and in transformed mink Mv1Lu cells derived from fetal mink lung epithelium [6].

Associations of Ccnd2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ccnd2

  • In conclusion, liver development is associated with a switch from cyclin D2/D3-containing complexes to cyclin D1:CDK4 complexes [11].

Regulatory relationships of Ccnd2

  • Furthermore, blocking ERK phosphorylation as well as DHT treatment resulted in a reduction in FSH-stimulated cyclin D2 mRNA expression [12].
  • The results show that the expression of rat cyclin D2 gene is not dependent on the TATA-box but is stimulated by multiple transcription factors induced by prolactin at an immediate-early stage of the cell cycle [13].

Other interactions of Ccnd2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ccnd2


  1. The Vin-1 gene, identified by provirus insertional mutagenesis, is the cyclin D2. Hanna, Z., Jankowski, M., Tremblay, P., Jiang, X., Milatovich, A., Francke, U., Jolicoeur, P. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Cyclin D2 induces proliferation of cardiac myocytes and represses hypertrophy. Busk, P.K., Hinrichsen, R., Bartkova, J., Hansen, A.H., Christoffersen, T.E., Bartek, J., Haunsø, S. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyclin D2 and Ha-Ras transformed rat embryo fibroblasts exhibit a novel deregulation of cell size control and early S phase arrest in low serum. Kerkhoff, E., Ziff, E.B. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth factor dependence of progression through G1 and S phases of adult rat hepatocytes in vitro. Evidence of a mitogen restriction point in mid-late G1. Loyer, P., Cariou, S., Glaise, D., Bilodeau, M., Baffet, G., Guguen-Guillouzo, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Dihydrotestosterone inhibits insulin-stimulated cyclin D2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat ovarian granulosa cells by reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. Kayampilly, P.P., Menon, K.M. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential expression of cyclin D2 and cdc2 genes in proliferating and nonproliferating alveolar epithelial cells. Wu, F., Buckley, S., Bui, K.C., Warburton, D. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Dihydrotestosterone inhibits granulosa cell proliferation by decreasing the cyclin D2 mRNA expression and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Pradeep, P.K., Li, X., Peegel, H., Menon, K.M. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of cyclin D activity in left ventricle hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Busk, P.K., Bartkova, J., Strøm, C.C., Wulf-Andersen, L., Hinrichsen, R., Christoffersen, T.E., Latella, L., Bartek, J., Haunsø, S., Sheikh, S.P. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Cyclic AMP inhibits extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways by inhibiting Rap1. Wang, L., Liu, F., Adamo, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A single dose of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal rats alters gonocytes, reduces sertoli cell proliferation, and decreases cyclin D2 expression. Li, L.H., Jester, W.F., Laslett, A.L., Orth, J.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. D-type cyclins and G1 progression during liver development in the rat. Boylan, J.M., Gruppuso, P.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-2 phosphorylation by dihydrotestosterone reduces follicle-stimulating hormone-mediated cyclin D2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat granulosa cells. Kayampilly, P.P., Menon, K.M. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and functional analysis of rat cyclin D2 promoter: multiple prolactin-responsive elements. Yang, M., Hosokawa, Y., Hu, Y., Kaneko, S., Kaneko, H., Tanaka, M., Nakashima, K. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Estrogen activates cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 through induction of cyclin D in rat primary osteoblasts. Fujita, M., Urano, T., Horie, K., Ikeda, K., Tsukui, T., Fukuoka, H., Tsutsumi, O., Ouchi, Y., Inoue, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of D2 and D3 cyclin-encoding genes during promotion of the G1/S transition by prolactin in rat Nb2 cells. Hosokawa, Y., Onga, T., Nakashima, K. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergism between FSH and activin in the regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D2 expression in rat granulosa cells. El-Hefnawy, T., Zeleznik, A.J. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Opposite effect of prolactin and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) on the expression of luteal genes as revealed by rat cDNA expression array. Stocco, C., Callegari, E., Gibori, G. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential expression of D type cyclins during neuronal maturation. Tamaru, T., Okada, M., Nakagawa, H. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent release from contact inhibition in WB-F344 cells: involvement of cyclin A. Dietrich, C., Faust, D., Budt, S., Moskwa, M., Kunz, A., Bock, K.W., Oesch, F. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities