The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

SSTR4  -  somatostatin receptor 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: SS-4-R, SS4-R, SS4R, Somatostatin receptor type 4
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SSTR4


High impact information on SSTR4

  • Some of the subtypes are also coupled to inward rectifying K(+) channels (SSTR2, 3, 4, 5), to voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (SSTR1, 2), a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (SSTR1), AMPA/kainate glutamate channels (SSTR1, 2), phospholipase C (SSTR2, 5), and phospholipase A(2) (SSTR4) [6].
  • Surprisingly, several well-characterized synthetic somatostatin analogs fail to exhibit high-affinity binding to hSSTR4, indicating the existence of pharmacologically different receptor subtypes [7].
  • SSTR3 was detected in occasional alpha-cells, and SSTR4 was absent [8].
  • SSTR3 messenger RNA was undetectable in normal and cancer EC, whereas SSTR4 and SSTR5 were present in both cell types [9].
  • SSTR4 expression was also undetectable in 11 GH-secreting tumors, 3 prolactinomas, and 1 ACTH-secreting tumor tested [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of SSTR4


Biological context of SSTR4


Anatomical context of SSTR4

  • Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of an SSTR4 mRNA species of approximately 4 kilobases in select regions of the monkey brain, including the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cortex, and striatum, with little or no receptor mRNA detected in either the olfactory tubercle, medulla, cerebellum, or amygdala [2].
  • Membranes prepared from COS-7 cells transiently expressing the hSSTR4 gene bound 125I-[Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SST-28 in a saturable manner with high affinity (approximately 60 pM) and with a pharmacological profile and rank order of potency ([D-Trp8]SST-14 > SST-14 > SMS 201-995 > SST-28 > MK-678) indicative of a SST-14-selective receptor [2].
  • SSTR4 is expressed in fetal brain, hypothalamus and spinal cord but not pituitary [15].
  • In summary, the present study clearly demonstrates the presence of hSSTR1-3 in tumoral and nontumoral epithelial cells as well as in the stromal compartment, whereas hSSTR4 was found to be confined to epithelial cells, and SSTR5 was not detectable [16].
  • SSTR3 was present in intracellular granules, while SSTR4 and SSTR5 were expressed on the lumenal membranes of the tubules [17].

Associations of SSTR4 with chemical compounds

  • The anti-inflammatory action of TT-232 is mediated through the SSTR4 receptor, and its antitumor activity is mediated through the SSTR1 receptor and by the tumor-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase [18].
  • We conclude that cisplatin neuropathy is accompanied by an increase in plasma somatostatin immunoreactivity with an increase in SSTR4 expression in rats [19].
  • Compound 19 bound hSSTR4 with a Ki of 100 nM [20].
  • The rank of the potency of the analogues are: somatostatin-14 = somatostatin-28 >> RC-160 >> SMS201-995 for the hSSTR4 and somatostatin-28 > somatostatin-14 >> RC-160 > SMS201-995 for the hSSTR5 [21].

Other interactions of SSTR4

  • AD cortex showed a marked reduction in neuronal expression of SSTR4 and 5 and a modest decrease in SSTR2-like immunoreactivity without any changes in SSTR1 immunoreactive neurons [22].
  • SSTR4 and SSTR5 transcripts were only rarely detected [23].
  • A potential role of somatostatin and its receptor SSTR4 in the migration of hepatic oval cells [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SSTR4


  1. Identification of somatostatin receptor subtypes and an implication for the efficacy of somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in treatment of human endocrine tumors. Kubota, A., Yamada, Y., Kagimoto, S., Shimatsu, A., Imamura, M., Tsuda, K., Imura, H., Seino, S., Seino, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and expression of a human somatostatin-14-selective receptor variant (somatostatin receptor 4) located on chromosome 20. Demchyshyn, L.L., Srikant, C.B., Sunahara, R.K., Kent, G., Seeman, P., Van Tol, H.H., Panetta, R., Patel, Y.C., Niznik, H.B. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid and thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Ain, K.B., Taylor, K.D., Tofiq, S., Venkataraman, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression pattern of somatostatin receptor subtypes 1-5 in human skin: an immunohistochemical study of healthy subjects and patients with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. Hagstr??mer, L., Emtestam, L., Stridsberg, M., Talme, T. Exp. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes in pituitary adenomas: quantitative analysis of SSTR2 mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Murabe, H., Shimatsu, A., Ihara, C., Mizuta, H., Nakamura, Y., Nagata, I., Kikuchi, H., Nakao, K. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Somatostatin and its receptor family. Patel, Y.C. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of a fourth human somatostatin receptor. Rohrer, L., Raulf, F., Bruns, C., Buettner, R., Hofstaedter, F., Schüle, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Subtype-selective expression of the five somatostatin receptors (hSSTR1-5) in human pancreatic islet cells: a quantitative double-label immunohistochemical analysis. Kumar, U., Sasi, R., Suresh, S., Patel, A., Thangaraju, M., Metrakos, P., Patel, S.C., Patel, Y.C. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Different expression patterns of somatostatin receptor subtypes in cultured epithelial cells from human normal prostate and prostate cancer. Sinisi, A.A., Bellastella, A., Prezioso, D., Nicchio, M.R., Lotti, T., Salvatore, M., Pasquali, D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of three somatostatin receptor subtypes in pituitary adenomas: evidence for preferential SSTR5 expression in the mammosomatotroph lineage. Greenman, Y., Melmed, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 4 in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Hansson, J., Bjartell, A., Gadaleanu, V., Dizeyi, N., Abrahamsson, P.A. Prostate (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a human somatostatin receptor, hSSTR4. Xu, Y., Song, J., Bruno, J.F., Berelowitz, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. A human somatostatin receptor (SSTR3), located on chromosome 22, displays preferential affinity for somatostatin-14 like peptides. Corness, J.D., Demchyshyn, L.L., Seeman, P., Van Tol, H.H., Srikant, C.B., Kent, G., Patel, Y.C., Niznik, H.B. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Point mutation of the somatostatin receptor 2 gene in the human small cell lung cancer cell line COR-L103. Zhang, C.Y., Yokogoshi, Y., Yoshimoto, K., Fujinaka, Y., Matsumoto, K., Saito, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Developmental changes in the expression of somatostatin receptors (1-5) in the brain, hypothalamus, pituitary and spinal cord of the human fetus. Goodyer, C.G., Grigorakis, S.I., Patel, Y.C., Kumar, U. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization and mRNA expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes in human prostatic tissue and prostate cancer cell lines. Dizeyi, N., Konrad, L., Bjartell, A., Wu, H., Gadaleanu, V., Hansson, J., Helboe, L., Abrahamsson, P.A. Urol. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of somatostatin receptors 3, 4, and 5 in mouse kidney proximal tubules. Bates, C.M., Kegg, H., Petrevski, C., Grady, S. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. TT232, a novel signal transduction inhibitory compound in the therapy of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Szokolóczi, O., Schwab, R., Peták, I., Orfi, L., Pap, A., Eberle, A.N., Szüts, T., Kéril, G. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in tracheo-bronchial sensory neuropeptide receptor gene expression pattern in rats with cisplatin-induced sensory neuropathy. Horváth, P., Szilvássy, Z., Peitl, B., Szilvássy, J., Helyes, Z., Szolcsányi, J., Németh, J. Neuropeptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Modulation of receptor and receptor subtype affinities using diastereomeric and enantiomeric monosaccharide scaffolds as a means to structural and biological diversity. A new route to ether synthesis. Hirschmann, R., Hynes, J., Cichy-Knight, M.A., van Rijn, R.D., Sprengeler, P.A., Spoors, P.G., Shakespeare, W.C., Pietranico-Cole, S., Barbosa, J., Liu, J., Yao, W., Rohrer, S., Smith, A.B. J. Med. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a fourth (hSSTR4) and a fifth (hSSTR5) human somatostatin receptor subtype. Yamada, Y., Kagimoto, S., Kubota, A., Yasuda, K., Masuda, K., Someya, Y., Ihara, Y., Li, Q., Imura, H., Seino, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) in Alzheimer's disease brain: an immunohistochemical analysis. Kumar, U. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas. Lamszus, K., Meyerhof, W., Westphal, M. J. Neurooncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. A potential role of somatostatin and its receptor SSTR4 in the migration of hepatic oval cells. Jung, Y., Oh, S.H., Zheng, D., Shupe, T.D., Witek, R.P., Petersen, B.E. Lab. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities