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Gene Review

TRGV9  -  T cell receptor gamma variable 9

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: TCRGV9, TRGC1, V2
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Disease relevance of TRGV9


High impact information on TRGV9


Chemical compound and disease context of TRGV9


Biological context of TRGV9

  • Of interest is the presence of a characteristic decanucleotide AGGTGGT(T)GAG in the promoter regions of both the TRDV2 and TRGV9 genes [12].
  • The TCCTCAGT octanucleotide found 100 pb upstream of the ATG of the HD-Mar V alpha transcript, a TCR V alpha gene without a TATA box, is observed upstream of TRDV2 but not TRGV9 [12].
  • MspI RFLP of the human TCR gamma chain variable gene V9 (TCRGV9) [13].
  • Rearrangements of the second variable (V2) loop with respect to the CD4 binding site and associated epitopes were evident in comparisons of the two gp120 glycoproteins [14].
  • Both V1 and V2 carry amino acid substitutions, Leu84Phe and Trp65Cys, respectively, while V3 has a silent mutation [15].

Anatomical context of TRGV9

  • In this paper, we report that the promoter regions of the TRDV2 and TRGV9 genes, which are preferentially expressed early in T-cell differentiation, display short direct repeats but no TATA box, in contrast to the V gamma genes belonging to subgroup I [12].
  • Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-alpha attachment domain of versican (present in V0 and V2) revealed decreased staining of most glioma ECMs compared to normal neuropil, while some abnormal tumor vessels, but not normal cerebral vessels, were GAG-alpha-positive [5].
  • Each of V1, V2 and V3 mRNA showed significant decreases in expression in painful and ruptured tendons, but V0 was not significantly changed [16].
  • Finally, in contrast with results obtained with antibodies produced against the V3 region of HIV-1 gp120 and monoclonal antibodies produced against the V3 of SIV, antibodies produced against V2 and V3 of HIV-2 were unable to inhibit syncytium formation induced by HIV-2 in vitro [17].

Associations of TRGV9 with chemical compounds

  • Association of structural changes in the V2 and V3 loops of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with acquisition of neutralization resistance in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus passaged in vivo [14].
  • In contrast, stimulation of CHO cells expressing hV2 receptors resulted in an accumulation of cyclic AMP with an EC50 value of 2.22 nM [18].
  • Assay variability, indexed by CV, using Calcium 3 or FLUO-4 was equivalent with 5-HT(2C) receptor responses although CVs were reduced using Calcium 3 in the examples of the mGluR5 and V2 receptors [19].
  • We performed the present study to determine whether angiotensin II play a role in causing an increase in the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 and AQP2 mRNA in the kidney of the cardiomyopathic hamster [20].
  • Performance characteristics of an improved version of the ABBOTT IMx HBsAg (V2) MEIA [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRGV9

  • Using a coimmunoprecipitation strategy and a newly developed sandwich ELISA system, a direct and highly specific interaction between the mutant V2 vasopressin receptor proteins and the V2-tail polypeptide was demonstrated [2].
  • RT-PCR studies for the other vasopressin receptors showed a much lower signal for V2 and no evidence for V3 mRNA [21].
  • To provide further insight into the physiological role of V1a and V2 vasopressin receptors in the human and mouse kidney, intrarenal localization of the receptors mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization [22].
  • Such antibodies were isolated from one human serum by affinity chromatography on a column containing a V1/V2 fusion protein, and shown to efficiently neutralize several macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates [23].
  • Selective antagonism of the vasopressin 2 (V2) receptor may facilitate a safe diuresis and normalize low serum sodium levels, as demonstrated in preliminary clinical trials [24].


  1. Mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene are associated with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Pan, Y., Metzenberg, A., Das, S., Jing, B., Gitschier, J. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Reconstitution of mutant V2 vasopressin receptors by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Molecular basis and clinical implication. Schöneberg, T., Sandig, V., Wess, J., Gudermann, T., Schultz, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Human anti-V2 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes primary but not laboratory isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Gorny, M.K., Moore, J.P., Conley, A.J., Karwowska, S., Sodroski, J., Williams, C., Burda, S., Boots, L.J., Zolla-Pazner, S. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Purification, characterization, and immunogenicity of a soluble trimeric envelope protein containing a partial deletion of the V2 loop derived from SF162, an R5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate. Srivastava, I.K., Stamatatos, L., Kan, E., Vajdy, M., Lian, Y., Hilt, S., Martin, L., Vita, C., Zhu, P., Roux, K.H., Vojtech, L., C Montefiori, D., Donnelly, J., Ulmer, J.B., Barnett, S.W. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential expression of versican isoforms in brain tumors. Paulus, W., Baur, I., Dours-Zimmermann, M.T., Zimmermann, D.R. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a novel integrin alphavbeta3 binding site in CCN1 (CYR61) critical for pro-angiogenic activities in vascular endothelial cells. Chen, N., Leu, S.J., Todorovic, V., Lam, S.C., Lau, L.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of TCR Vbeta-specific CD8+ CTLs by TCR Vbeta-derived peptides bound to HLA-E. Li, J., Goldstein, I., Glickman-Nir, E., Jiang, H., Chess, L. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Pharmacologic chaperones as a potential treatment for X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Bernier, V., Morello, J.P., Zarruk, A., Debrand, N., Salahpour, A., Lonergan, M., Arthus, M.F., Laperrière, A., Brouard, R., Bouvier, M., Bichet, D.G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor and aquaporin-2 genes in 12 families with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Vargas-Poussou, R., Forestier, L., Dautzenberg, M.D., Niaudet, P., Déchaux, M., Antignac, C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Length variation of glycoprotein 120 V2 region in relation to biological phenotypes and coreceptor usage of primary HIV type 1 isolates. Jansson, M., Backström, E., Scarlatti, G., Björndal, A., Matsuda, S., Rossi, P., Albert, J., Wigzell, H. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Performance characteristics of an improved version of the ABBOTT IMx HBsAg (V2) MEIA. Pfeifer, K., Dobson, C., Herron, A., Kapprell, H.P. Clin. Lab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The promoter regions of the T-cell receptor V9 gamma (TRGV9) and V2 delta (TRDV2) genes display short direct repeats but no TATA box. Dariavach, P., Lefranc, M.P. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. MspI RFLP of the human TCR gamma chain variable gene V9 (TCRGV9). Martínez-Naves, E., Peña, M., Alvarez, V., Setién, F., López-Larrea, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Association of structural changes in the V2 and V3 loops of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with acquisition of neutralization resistance in a simian-human immunodeficiency virus passaged in vivo. Ye, Y., Si, Z.H., Moore, J.P., Sodroski, J. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of human polymorphic DNA repair methyltransferase. Inoue, R., Abe, M., Nakabeppu, Y., Sekiguchi, M., Mori, T., Suzuki, T. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Versican splice variant messenger RNA expression in normal human Achilles tendon and tendinopathies. Corps, A.N., Robinson, A.H., Movin, T., Costa, M.L., Ireland, D.C., Hazleman, B.L., Riley, G.P. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Specificity of antipeptide antibodies produced against V2 and V3 regions of the external envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Babas, T., Benichou, S., Guetard, D., Montagnier, L., Bahraoui, E. Mol. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacological characterization of the human vasopressin receptor subtypes stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Tahara, A., Saito, M., Sugimoto, T., Tomura, Y., Wada, K., Kusayama, T., Tsukada, J., Ishii, N., Yatsu, T., Uchida, W., Tanaka, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Evaluation of FLIPR Calcium 3 Assay Kit--a new no-wash fluorescence calcium indicator reagent. Zhang, Y., Kowal, D., Kramer, A., Dunlop, J. Journal of biomolecular screening : the official journal of the Society for Biomolecular Screening. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Upregulation of vasopressin V2 and aquaporin 2 in the inner medullary collecting duct of cardiomyopathic hamsters is attenuated by enalapril treatment. Wong, N.L., Tsui, J.K. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Variable expression of the V1 vasopressin receptor modulates the phenotypic response of steroid-secreting adrenocortical tumors. Arnaldi, G., Gasc, J.M., de Keyzer, Y., Raffin-Sanson, M.L., Perraudin, V., Kuhn, J.M., Raux-Demay, M.C., Luton, J.P., Clauser, E., Bertagna, X. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Axial heterogeneity of vasopressin-receptor subtypes along the human and mouse collecting duct. Carmosino, M., Brooks, H.L., Cai, Q., Davis, L.S., Opalenik, S., Hao, C., Breyer, M.D. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Potent neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates by antibodies directed against epitopes present in the V1/V2 domain of HIV-1 gp120. Pinter, A., Honnen, W.J., Kayman, S.C., Trochev, O., Wu, Z. Vaccine (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Vasopressin receptor antagonists: mechanisms of action and potential effects in heart failure. Goldsmith, S.R. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
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