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Gene Review

PTC1  -  type 2C protein phosphatase PTC1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CWH47, D2925, KCS2, PP2C-1, Protein phosphatase 2C homolog 1, ...
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Disease relevance of PTC1


High impact information on PTC1

  • These observations strongly suggest that PP2C enzymes play an important role in the attenuation of Spc1 activity in heat-shocked cells [2].
  • Thr-171 dephosphorylation is compromised in a strain lacking functional type 2C serine/threonine phosphatases (PP2C), Ptc1 and Ptc3 [2].
  • Furthermore, PP2C-like enzymes are the predominant phosphatases toward human Cdk2 in HeLa cell extracts, indicating that the substrate specificity of PP2Cs toward CDKs is evolutionarily conserved [3].
  • PP2C phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 are required for DNA checkpoint inactivation after a double-strand break [4].
  • Nbp2 targets the Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase to the HOG MAPK pathway [5].

Biological context of PTC1


Anatomical context of PTC1

  • As ptc1 cells also display fragmented vacuoles, we hypothesized that lack of Ptc1 would primarily cause vacuolar malfunction, from which other phenotypes would derive [8].
  • Cells lacking the PTC1 gene initially produce buds without a mitochondrial compartment; however, these buds later receive part of the mitochondrial network from the mother cell [9].
  • The mitochondrial inheritance delay in the ptc1 mutant is not attributable to changes in intracellular glycerol concentrations or defects in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton [9].

Associations of PTC1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PTC1


Other interactions of PTC1

  • Previously, multicopy expression of PTC1 and PTC3 was shown to suppress lethality of the sln1Delta strain due to hyperactivation of the HOG pathway [7].
  • Mutations in a protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTP2) and a protein serine/threonine phosphatase gene (PTC1) cause a synthetic growth defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [1].
  • In the wild type, Hog1 kinase activity increased transiently, approximately 12-fold in response to osmotic stress, while overexpression of PTC1 limited activation to approximately 3-fold [7].
  • Three type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases (PTCs), Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3, have been isolated as negative regulators of this pathway [7].
  • Finally, mutation of PTC1 virtually abolishes the increased tolerance to toxic cations provided by overexpression of Hal3p [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTC1

  • Strains deleted for the TPD1 gene exhibit multiple phenotypes: temperature-sensitive growth, accumulation of unspliced precursor tRNAs, sporulation defects, and failure of cell separation during mitotic growth [12].
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) screening approach and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), we found that protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) interacted with ARC and that PP2C mediated-dephosphorylation of ARC inhibited its anti-apoptotic activity [13].
  • We describe a yeast two-hybrid assay system used in our lab to determine the interaction between members of the PP2C family and protein kinases in the SOS2 family [14].


  1. Mutations in a protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTP2) and a protein serine/threonine phosphatase gene (PTC1) cause a synthetic growth defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maeda, T., Tsai, A.Y., Saito, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Heat-shock-induced activation of stress MAP kinase is regulated by threonine- and tyrosine-specific phosphatases. Nguyen, A.N., Shiozaki, K. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Dephosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by type 2C protein phosphatases. Cheng, A., Ross, K.E., Kaldis, P., Solomon, M.J. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. PP2C phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 are required for DNA checkpoint inactivation after a double-strand break. Leroy, C., Lee, S.E., Vaze, M.B., Ochsenbien, F., Guerois, R., Haber, J.E., Marsolier-Kergoat, M.C. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Nbp2 targets the Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase to the HOG MAPK pathway. Mapes, J., Ota, I.M. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of protein phosphatases 2C on tolerance to lithium toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ruiz, A., González, A., García-Salcedo, R., Ramos, J., Ariño, J. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Ptc1, a type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase, inactivates the HOG pathway by dephosphorylating the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1. Warmka, J., Hanneman, J., Lee, J., Amin, D., Ota, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional Profiling of the Protein Phosphatase 2C Family in Yeast Provides Insights into the Unique Functional Roles of Ptc1. Gonz??lez, A., Ruiz, A., Serrano, R., Ari??o, J., Casamayor, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Mitochondrial inheritance is delayed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the serine/threonine phosphatase PTC1. Roeder, A.D., Hermann, G.J., Keegan, B.R., Thatcher, S.A., Shaw, J.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Suppressors of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae pkc1 mutation identify alleles of the phosphatase gene PTC1 and of a novel gene encoding a putative basic leucine zipper protein. Huang, K.N., Symington, L.S. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of cell wall beta-glucan assembly: PTC1 negatively affects PBS2 action in a pathway that includes modulation of EXG1 transcription. Jiang, B., Ram, A.F., Sheraton, J., Klis, F.M., Bussey, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. TPD1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein phosphatase 2C-like activity implicated in tRNA splicing and cell separation. Robinson, M.K., van Zyl, W.H., Phizicky, E.M., Broach, J.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. ARC protects rat cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress through inhibition of caspase-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway. Zhang, Y.Q., Herman, B. J. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Recognition of a PP2C Interaction Motif in Several Plant Protein Kinases. Chakraborty, N., Ohta, M., Zhu, J.K. Methods Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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