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Chemical Compound Review

LEAD     lead

Synonyms: Plumbum, Glover, plomb, plomo, Blei, ...
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Disease relevance of lead

  • The catalytic (alpha) subunit of casein kinase II from Drosophila, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (Saxena, A., Padmanabha, R., and Glover, C. V. C., (1987) Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 3409-3417), has been purified and characterized, and the properties have been compared to those of the holoenzyme [1].
  • Effect of homeopathic drugs plumbum and opium on experimentally induced lead toxicity in rats [2].
  • Certainly, it is not an issue that has been resolved by Leckelt and Glover, but these cases have brought more insight into the proper role of HIV testing of health care workers in light of current medical and legal knowledge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[3]

Psychiatry related information on lead

  • This work describes assessment of the psychometric properties of a self-report instrument, the Glover Vulnerability Scale [4].
  • Kohut and Glover. The role of subjectivity in psychoanalytic theory and controversy [5].
  • All subjects completed four self-report measures: the Glover Numbing Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Apathy Evaluation Scale, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 [6].
  • Recently, Glover has challenged this position and has suggested that movement planning, but not movement execution is susceptible to visual illusions [7].
  • The efficacy of a cognitive-based arithmetic problem-solving model (Dinnel, Glover, & Halpain, in press; Dinnel, Glover, & Ronning, 1984) was tested using 989 students with learning disabilities [8].

High impact information on lead

  • The sequence arrangement on the plasmid pDm103 containing one repeat of rDNA (Glover et al., 1975) has been determined by similar methods [9].
  • Although it has been possible to use conventional genetic analysis to dissect the function of aurora, the founding family member in Drosophila (Glover, D.M., M.H. Leibowitz, D.A. McLean, and H. Parry. 1995. Cell. 81:95-105), the lack of mutations in a second aurora-like kinase gene, aurora B, precluded this approach [10].
  • It was previously shown that ATR is critical to fragile-site stability and that ATR-deficient cells have greatly elevated fragile-site expression (A. M. Casper, P. Nghiem, M. F. Arlt, and T. W. Glover, Cell 111:779-789, 2002) [11].
  • Null mutations in the CKA1 gene do not confer a detectable phenotype (J. L.-P. Chen-Wu, R. Padmanabha, and C. V. C. Glover, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4981-4990, 1988), presumably because of the presence of the CKA2 gene [12].
  • Casein kinase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two distinct catalytic subunits, alpha and alpha', which must be encoded by separate genes (R. Padmanabha and C. V. C. Glover, J. Biol. Chem. 262:1829-1835, 1987) [13].

Biological context of lead


Anatomical context of lead

  • While most Rz cells innervate the body wall in their own segment and, by way of axons in the interganglionic connectives, the body wall of adjacent segments, the Rz cells in ganglia 5 and 6 [Rz(5,6)] lack interganglionic axons and innervate only the reproductive tissue (Glover and Mason, 1986) [19].
  • The microtubule organizing center of the animal cell (S. D. Fuller et al., 1992, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2, 264-274; D. M. Glover et al., 1993, Sci. Am. 268, 62-68; E. B. Wilson, 1925), (The Cell in Development and Heredity) comprises two centrioles and the pericentriolar material [20].
  • Pole cells without nuclei then form around those centrosomes that reach the posterior pole (Raff and Glover, 1989); the centrosomes presumably must interact with polar granules, the maternally-provided determinants for pole cell formation [21].

Associations of lead with other chemical compounds

  • We have investigated the effects of TCPOBOP (1,4-bis[2-(3,5- dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene), a potent cytochrome P-450-inducing agent [Poland, Mak, Glover, Boatman, Ebetino and Kende (1980) Mol. Pharmacol. 18, 571-580], on cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme expression in the mouse [22].
  • With Mg(2+) as the activating cation, S39A enolase has <0.01% of wild-type activity as reported previously [J.M. Brewer, C.V. Glover, M.J. Holland, L. Lebioda, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1383 (2) (1998) 351-355] [23].
  • Under conditions of low salt (0.05 M NaCl, 10 mM MgCl2), CKII forms structured aggregates that appear as filaments similar to results obtained with Drosophila CKII [C.V.C. Glover (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261:14349] [24].
  • The crystal structure of bis(acetylacetonato)lead(ii) and the structure of the acetylacetone solvated lead(ii) ion in solution have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS), respectively [25].
  • Crystal structure of lead(ii) acetylacetonate and the structure of the acetylacetone solvated lead(ii) ion in solution studied by large-angle X-ray scattering [25].

Gene context of lead

  • Such double disruptions can be rescued by GAL1, 10-induced expression of the Drosophila alpha and beta subunits (Dm alpha+beta) together or by GAL10-induced expression of the Drosophila alpha subunit (Dm alpha) alone (Padmanabha, R., Chen-Wu, J. L.-P., Hanna, D. E., and Glover, C. V. C. (1990) Mol. Cell. Biol. 10, 4089-4099) [26].
  • Our laboratory reported yeast CKII to be composed of four polypeptides of 42, 41, 35, and 32 kDa (R. Padmanabha and C. V. C. Glover, 1987, J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1829-1835) [27].
  • SAA protein on to HDL3 [Turnell, Sarra, Glover, Baum, Caspi, Baltz and Pepys (1986) Mol. Biol. Med. 3, 387-407] [28].
  • Of particular interest is the S431F mutation in ace2 and its orthologue ace1 of Myzus persicae Sulzer and Aphis gossypii Glover, respectively [29].
  • Casein kinase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of two distinct catalytic subunits, alpha and alpha', and two distinct regulatory subunits, beta and beta' (Padmanabha, R. and Glover, C. V. C. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 1829-1835; Bidwai, A. P., Reed, J. C., and Glover, C. V. C. (1994) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 309, 348-355) [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lead

  • Disturbed cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, released (E)-beta-farnesene into the air as detected by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [31].
  • The accuracy of the amino acid sequence of the synthesized oligopeptide and the location of the synthesis was illustrated by the specific recognition binding of two different models: lead(II) ion-peptide biosensor for lead(II) and human protein p53 (residue 20-25)-mouse MAb DO1 [32].
  • The DTB sensor was applied to lead(II) ion determination in real samples and as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations [33].
  • Samples of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, populations collected from the vicinity of Multan in central Pakistan from 1997 to 2000 were evaluated for pyrethroid resistance in comparison with a susceptible laboratory colony using a leaf-dip bioassay [34].


  1. Characterization of the catalytic subunit of casein kinase II expressed in Escherichia coli and regulation of activity. Lin, W.J., Tuazon, P.T., Traugh, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of homeopathic drugs plumbum and opium on experimentally induced lead toxicity in rats. Begum, R., Koshy, R., Sengupta, A. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The right to know and the right to privacy: HIV testing and health care management. Wyld, D.C., Cappel, S.D., Hallock, D.E. The Health care supervisor. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Vulnerability Scale: a preliminary report of psychometric properties. Glover, H., Ohlde, C., Silver, S., Packard, P., Goodnick, P., Hamlin, C.L. Psychological reports. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Kohut and Glover. The role of subjectivity in psychoanalytic theory and controversy. Baudry, F. The Psychoanalytic study of the child. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Relationship of numbing to alexithymia, apathy, and depression. Ramirez, S.M., Glover, H., Ohlde, C., Mercer, R., Goodnick, P., Hamlin, C., Perez-Rivera, M.I. Psychological reports. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Visual illusions affect both movement planning and on-line control: a multiple cue position on bias and goal-directed action. Mendoza, J., Hansen, S., Glazebrook, C.M., Keetch, K.M., Elliott, D. Human movement science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Empirical testing of a cognitive model to account for neuropsychological functioning underlying arithmetic problem solving. Batchelor, E.S., Gray, J.W., Dean, R.S. Journal of learning disabilities. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequence arrangement of the rDNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Pellegrini, M., Manning, J., Davidson, N. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Drosophila aurora B kinase is required for histone H3 phosphorylation and condensin recruitment during chromosome condensation and to organize the central spindle during cytokinesis. Giet, R., Glover, D.M. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. BRCA1 is required for common-fragile-site stability via its G2/M checkpoint function. Arlt, M.F., Xu, B., Durkin, S.G., Casper, A.M., Kastan, M.B., Glover, T.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation, sequencing, and disruption of the yeast CKA2 gene: casein kinase II is essential for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Padmanabha, R., Chen-Wu, J.L., Hanna, D.E., Glover, C.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation, sequencing, and disruption of the CKA1 gene encoding the alpha subunit of yeast casein kinase II. Chen-Wu, J.L., Padmanabha, R., Glover, C.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Deregulation of translational control of the 65-kDa regulatory subunit (PR65 alpha) of protein phosphatase 2A leads to multinucleated cells. Wera, S., Fernandez, A., Lamb, N.J., Turowski, P., Hemmings-Mieszczak, M., Mayer-Jaekel, R.E., Hemmings, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation on the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II. Regulation of enzyme activity by enhancement of ATP hydrolysis. Corbett, A.H., DeVore, R.F., Osheroff, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Two amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase associated with pirimicarb and organophosphorous insecticide resistance in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae). Toda, S., Komazaki, S., Tomita, T., Kono, Y. Insect Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Drosophila contains three genes that encode distinct isoforms of protein phosphatase 1. Dombrádi, V., Axton, J.M., Brewis, N.D., da Cruz e Silva, E.F., Alphey, L., Cohen, P.T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the aphid species Aphis gossypii Glover. Vanlerberghe-Masutti, F., Chavigny, P., Fuller, S.J. Mol. Ecol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Morphological changes in leech Retzius neurons after target contact during embryogenesis. Jellies, J., Loer, C.M., Kristan, W.B. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the mammalian centriole from cryoelectron micrographs: the use of common lines for orientation and alignment. Kenney, J., Karsenti, E., Gowen, B., Fuller, S.D. J. Struct. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Mitosis in Drosophila development. Glover, D.M., Alphey, L., Axton, J.M., Cheshire, A., Dalby, B., Freeman, M., Girdham, C., Gonzalez, C., Karess, R.E., Leibowitz, M.H. J. Cell Sci. Suppl. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, an extremely potent modulator of mouse hepatic cytochrome P-450 gene expression. Smith, G., Henderson, C.J., Parker, M.G., White, R., Bars, R.G., Wolf, C.R. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional and structural changes due to a serine to alanine mutation in the active-site flap of enolase. Poyner, R.R., Larsen, T.M., Wong, S.W., Reed, G.H. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Stimulation of enzymatic activity in filament preparations of casein kinase II by polylysine, melittin, and spermine. Mamrack, M.D. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Crystal structure of lead(ii) acetylacetonate and the structure of the acetylacetone solvated lead(ii) ion in solution studied by large-angle X-ray scattering. Lyczko, K., Narbutt, J., Paluchowska, B., Maurin, J.K., Persson, I. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Purification and characterization of casein kinase II (CKII) from delta cka1 delta cka2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae rescued by Drosophila CKII subunits. The free catalytic subunit of casein kinase II is not toxic in vivo. Bidwai, A.P., Hanna, D.E., Glover, C.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Casein kinase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two distinct regulatory subunits, beta and beta'. Bidwai, A.P., Reed, J.C., Glover, C.V. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of recombinant human serum amyloid A in mammalian cells and demonstration of the region necessary for high-density lipoprotein binding and amyloid fibril formation by site-directed mutagenesis. Patel, H., Bramall, J., Waters, H., De Beer, M.C., Woo, P. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Biochemical evidence that an S431F mutation in acetylcholinesterase-1 of Aphis gossypii mediates resistance to pirimicarb and omethoate. Benting, J., Nauen, R. Pest Manag. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Cloning and disruption of CKB2, the gene encoding the 32-kDa regulatory beta'-subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II. Reed, J.C., Bidwai, A.P., Glover, C.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. A cost of alarm pheromone production in cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii. Byers, J.A. Naturwissenschaften (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Light-directed simultaneous synthesis of oligopeptides on microarray substrate using a photogenerated acid. Komolpis, K., Srivannavit, O., Gulari, E. Biotechnol. Prog. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Potentiometric carbon paste sensors for lead(II) based on dithiodibenzoic and mercaptobenzoic acids. Gismera, M.J., Sevilla, M.T., Procopio, J.R. Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. High resistance of field populations of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) to pyrethroid insecticides in Pakistan. Ahmad, M., Arif, M.I., Denholm, I. J. Econ. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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