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Gene Review

fliJ  -  flagellar biosynthesis chaperone

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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Disease relevance of fliJ

  • A knockout mutant in the ppk gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is impaired in flagellar swimming motility on semisolid agar plates [1].
  • Gene families that were upregulated in dispersed cells included those for flagellar and ribosomal proteins, kinases, and phage PF1 [2].
  • In this study, we present evidence that P. aeruginosa has two flagellar stators, conserved in all pseudomonads as well as some other gram-negative bacteria [3].
  • The ORF encodes proteins similar to flagellar proteins FlhB, FlhA, FlhF, and FliA, plus two proteins of unknown function, ORF234 and ORF319, from Bacillus subtilis and other organisms [4].
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellar antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis [5].

High impact information on fliJ

  • Western immunoblot of membranes from mucus-grown bacteria showed the absence of FlgE, despite the fact that the protein is made and the operon encoding FlgE is upregulated in mucus [6].
  • Known flagellar transcriptional regulators were not involved, thus Tn5 mutagenesis was used to ascertain whether novel regulators existed [6].
  • Two classes of sad mutants were analysed: (i) mutants defective in flagellar-mediated motility and (ii) mutants defective in biogenesis of the polar-localized type IV pili [7].
  • Since the flagellar cap is very likely an exposed structure, the FliD polypeptide should be recognized by the host immune system, analogous to the recognition of dominant epitopes located in the exposed parts of the flagellin polypeptide within the assembled flagellum [8].
  • Immune responses to type-specific lipopolysaccharide, pili, and flagellar antigens were measured, and increases in both serum and intestinal antibodies were usually elicited when a strain elaborated a given antigen [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of fliJ

  • Appearance of straight flagellar filaments in the presence of p-fluorophenylalanine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [10].
  • BACKGROUND: Subinhibitory concentrations of mupirocin can suppress flagellar formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [11].
  • The screening of genetically engineered SP-A mice with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa signature tagged mutagenesis library has revealed several pathways which are required for resistance to the permeabilizing effects of SP-A, including those required for salicylate biosynthesis and flagellar function [12].

Biological context of fliJ

  • It was hypothesized that an alginate regulator inhibits flagellar gene expression [13].
  • We obtained two strains in which Tn501 was inserted at sites close to the flagellar cistrons in region II [14].
  • In comparison to strain PAK, which has an extensive flagellar glycosylation island of 14 genes in its genome, the equivalent locus in PAO1 comprises of only four genes [15].
  • FleQ, the major flagellar gene regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, binds to enhancer sites located either upstream or atypically downstream of the RpoN binding site [16].
  • Analysis of flagellar genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by use of Rfla plasmids and conjugations [17].

Anatomical context of fliJ


Associations of fliJ with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of partial acid-hydrolyzed flagellar filaments revealed that 32Pi was in phosphotyrosine [20].

Other interactions of fliJ


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fliJ


  1. Inorganic polyphosphate is needed for swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rashid, M.H., Kornberg, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of nutrient-induced dispersion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. Sauer, K., Cullen, M.C., Rickard, A.H., Zeef, L.A., Davies, D.G., Gilbert, P. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for two flagellar stators and their role in the motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Toutain, C.M., Zegans, M.E., O'Toole, G.A. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae flagellar operon region and molecular characterization of flhF. Shen, Y., Chern, M., Silva, F.G., Ronald, P. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellar antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis. Anderson, T.R., Montie, T.C., Murphy, M.D., McCarthy, V.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic mechanisms involved in the repression of flagellar assembly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human mucus. Jyot, J., Sonawane, A., Wu, W., Ramphal, R. Mol. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Flagellar and twitching motility are necessary for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development. O'Toole, G.A., Kolter, R. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of two distinct types of flagellar cap proteins, FliD, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Arora, S.K., Dasgupta, N., Lory, S., Ramphal, R. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. A murine model of chronic mucosal colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pier, G.B., Meluleni, G., Neuger, E. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Appearance of straight flagellar filaments in the presence of p-fluorophenylalanine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Suzuki, T., Iino, T. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of mupirocin at subinhibitory concentrations on biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ishikawa, J., Horii, T. Chemotherapy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. New concepts in collectin-mediated host defense at the air-liquid interface of the lung. McCormack, F.X. Respirology (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Negative control of flagellum synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is modulated by the alternative sigma factor AlgT (AlgU). Garrett, E.S., Perlegas, D., Wozniak, D.J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Ordering of the flagellar genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by insertions of mercury transposon Tn501. Tsuda, M., Iino, T. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycosylation of b-Type flagellin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: structural and genetic basis. Verma, A., Schirm, M., Arora, S.K., Thibault, P., Logan, S.M., Ramphal, R. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. FleQ, the major flagellar gene regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, binds to enhancer sites located either upstream or atypically downstream of the RpoN binding site. Jyot, J., Dasgupta, N., Ramphal, R. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Analysis of flagellar genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by use of Rfla plasmids and conjugations. Tsuda, M., Oguchi, T., Iino, T. J. Bacteriol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. MorA defines a new class of regulators affecting flagellar development and biofilm formation in diverse Pseudomonas species. Choy, W.K., Zhou, L., Syn, C.K., Zhang, L.H., Swarup, S. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Flagellar antibody stimulated opsonophagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with response to either a- or b-type flagellar antigen. Anderson, T.R., Montie, T.C. Can. J. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Tyrosine phosphate in a- and b-type flagellins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Kelly-Wintenberg, K., South, S.L., Montie, T.C. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. A transcriptional activator, FleQ, regulates mucin adhesion and flagellar gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a cascade manner. Arora, S.K., Ritchings, B.W., Almira, E.C., Lory, S., Ramphal, R. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm cocultures. An, D., Danhorn, T., Fuqua, C., Parsek, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by passive transfer of anti-flagellar serum. Drake, D., Montie, T.C. Can. J. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa H (flagellar) antigen. Montie, T.C., Anderson, T.R. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1988) [Pubmed]
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