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Gene Review

murI  -  glutamate racemase

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK3959, JW5550, dga, glr, yijA
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Disease relevance of murI


High impact information on murI


Chemical compound and disease context of murI


Biological context of murI


Anatomical context of murI


Associations of murI with chemical compounds


Other interactions of murI

  • To construct D-glutamate auxotrophs, it is necessary to transfer sequentially the mutated gltS locus, and then the mutated dga locus into the recipient [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of murI


  1. Identification of the Escherichia coli murI gene, which is required for the biosynthesis of D-glutamic acid, a specific component of bacterial peptidoglycan. Doublet, P., van Heijenoort, J., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of the murI gene from Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 13869 encoding D-glutamate racemase. Malathi, K.C., Wachi, M., Nagai, K. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of glr (murI, dga) gene encoding glutamate racemase in Escherichia coli. Yoshimura, T., Ashiuchi, M., Esaki, N., Kobatake, C., Choi, S.Y., Soda, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Staphylococcus haemolyticus contains two D-glutamic acid biosynthetic activities, a glutamate racemase and a D-amino acid transaminase. Pucci, M.J., Thanassi, J.A., Ho, H.T., Falk, P.J., Dougherty, T.J. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Glutamate racemase is an endogenous DNA gyrase inhibitor. Ashiuchi, M., Kuwana, E., Yamamoto, T., Komatsu, K., Soda, K., Misono, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Polarimetric assay for the medium-throughput determination of alpha-amino acid racemase activity. Schönfeld, D.L., Bornscheuer, U.T. Anal. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The glutamate racemase activity from Escherichia coli is regulated by peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine. Doublet, P., van Heijenoort, J., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. The murI gene of Escherichia coli is an essential gene that encodes a glutamate racemase activity. Doublet, P., van Heijenoort, J., Bohin, J.P., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine functions as an activator in the regulation of the Escherichia coli glutamate racemase activity. Ho, H.T., Falk, P.J., Ervin, K.M., Krishnan, B.S., Discotto, L.F., Dougherty, T.J., Pucci, M.J. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Overproduction of glutamate racemase of Pediococcus pentosaceus in Escherichia coli clone cells and its purification. Choi, S.Y., Esaki, N., Yoshimura, T., Soda, K. Protein Expr. Purif. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Purification, cloning, and cofactor independence of glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus. Gallo, K.A., Knowles, J.R. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of glutamate racemase from Aquifex pyrophilus, a hyperthermophilic bacterium. Hwang, K.Y., Cho, C.S., Kim, S.S., Baek, K., Kim, S.H., Yu, Y.G., Cho, Y. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The Escherichia coli mutant requiring D-glutamic acid is the result of mutations in two distinct genetic loci. Dougherty, T.J., Thanassi, J.A., Pucci, M.J. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable glutamate racemase from a hyperthermophilic bacterium, Aquifex pyrophilus. Kim, S.S., Choi, I.G., Kim, S.H., Yu, Y.G. Extremophiles (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulation of the glutamate racemase of Escherichia coli investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Doublet, P., van Heijenoort, J., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. Microb. Drug Resist. (1996) [Pubmed]
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