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Gene Review

HA  -  hemagglutinin

Influenza B virus

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Disease relevance of HA


Psychiatry related information on HA

  • Mice intravenously injected with concentrated infectious influenza B/Lee/40 virus (LD50 = 6400 hemagglutinin units) developed lethargy, seizures, coma, and death 1 to 3 days later [6].

High impact information on HA


Chemical compound and disease context of HA


Biological context of HA


Anatomical context of HA


Associations of HA with chemical compounds

  • Coexpression of NP and the P proteins in 293 cells was found to permit the expression and replication of a transfected model RNA based on segment 4 of B/Maryland/59, in which the hemagglutinin-coding region was replaced by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene [21].
  • Groups of mice were vaccinated three times intranasally (i.n.) with 10 microg of purified influenza B/Panama virus surface antigens (PSAs), which consist of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), either alone or admixed with chitosan or gellan solutions [22].
  • Mutations (Asn-->Ser) at amino acids 145 and 150 were also found in the hemagglutinin gene of the B/HK/8/73 (HG) virus resistant to 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en [23].
  • Both compounds, when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), reduced lung consolidation and prolonged mean day of death, but ribavirin more effectively increased survivor number and lowered lung viral hemagglutinin (HA) titers [24].
  • In timing of additional studies, hemagglutinin expression was inhibited to the greatest extent when LY253963 exposure was begun at least 8 h before viral infection, which suggested either slow uptake or intracellular metabolism of LY253963 to an active form [25].

Other interactions of HA

  • Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HA


  1. Evolutionary changes in influenza B are not primarily governed by antibody selection. Air, G.M., Gibbs, A.J., Laver, W.G., Webster, R.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes recognize a limited number of sites on the influenza hemagglutinin. Braciale, T.J., Sweetser, M.T., Morrison, L.A., Kittlesen, D.J., Braciale, V.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Origin and evolution of influenza virus hemagglutinin genes. Suzuki, Y., Nei, M. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Chimeric influenza A viruses with a functional influenza B virus neuraminidase or hemagglutinin. Flandorfer, A., García-Sastre, A., Basler, C.F., Palese, P. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Reassortment and insertion-deletion are strategies for the evolution of influenza B viruses in nature. McCullers, J.A., Wang, G.C., He, S., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Experimental influenza B virus toxicity in mice. A possible model for Reye's syndrome. Davis, L.E., Cole, L.L., Lockwood, S.J., Kornfeld, M. Lab. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhaled zanamivir for the prevention of influenza in families. Zanamivir Family Study Group. Hayden, F.G., Gubareva, L.V., Monto, A.S., Klein, T.C., Elliot, M.J., Hammond, J.M., Sharp, S.J., Ossi, M.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Diagnosis of influenza in the community: relationship of clinical diagnosis to confirmed virological, serologic, or molecular detection of influenza. Zambon, M., Hays, J., Webster, A., Newman, R., Keene, O. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of acylation sites of influenza B virus hemagglutinin on fusion pore formation and dilation. Ujike, M., Nakajima, K., Nobusawa, E. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes. Lindstrom, S.E., Hiromoto, Y., Nishimura, H., Saito, T., Nerome, R., Nerome, K. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Influenza virus subunit vaccines. II. Immunogenicity and original antigenic sin in humans. Webster, R.G., Kasel, J.A., Couch, R.B., Laver, W.G. J. Infect. Dis. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibody response in humans to influenza virus type B host-cell-derived variants after vaccination with standard (egg-derived) vaccine or natural infection. Harmon, M.W., Rota, P.A., Walls, H.H., Kendal, A.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of influenza B virus hemagglutinin containing multibasic residue cleavage sites. Brassard, D.L., Lamb, R.A. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolutionary pattern of the hemagglutinin gene of influenza B viruses isolated in Japan: cocirculating lineages in the same epidemic season. Kanegae, Y., Sugita, S., Endo, A., Ishida, M., Senya, S., Osako, K., Nerome, K., Oya, A. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza A and monovalent influenza B virus vaccines in high-risk children. Allison, J.E., Glezen, W.P., Taber, L.H., Paredes, A., Webster, R.G. J. Infect. Dis. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin of B/Ann Arbor/1/86, an epidemiologically significant variant of influenza B virus. Bootman, J.S., Robertson, J.S. Virology (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Influenza B virus BM2 protein is transported through the trans-Golgi network as an integral membrane protein. Watanabe, S., Imai, M., Ohara, Y., Odagiri, T. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Influenza B virus encephalitis. McCullers, J.A., Facchini, S., Chesney, P.J., Webster, R.G. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Robbins, P.A., Roderiquez, G.L., Peden, K.W., Norcross, M.A. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Endogenous protease-dependent replication of human influenza viruses in two MDCK cell lines. Noma, K., Kiyotani, K., Kouchi, H., Fujii, Y., Egi, Y., Tanaka, K., Yoshida, T. Arch. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The N-terminal extension of the influenza B virus nucleoprotein is not required for nuclear accumulation or the expression and replication of a model RNA. Stevens, M.P., Barclay, W.S. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Carbohydrate biopolymers enhance antibody responses to mucosally delivered vaccine antigens. Bacon, A., Makin, J., Sizer, P.J., Jabbal-Gill, I., Hinchcliffe, M., Illum, L., Chatfield, S., Roberts, M. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular basis for the resistance of influenza viruses to 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en. Staschke, K.A., Colacino, J.M., Baxter, A.J., Air, G.M., Bansal, A., Hornback, W.J., Munroe, J.E., Laver, W.G. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of selenazofurin on influenza A and B virus infections of mice. Sidwell, R.W., Huffman, J.H., Call, E.W., Alaghamandan, H., Cook, P.D., Robins, R.K. Antiviral Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Anti-influenza virus activity of the compound LY253963. Hayden, F.G., Rollins, B.S., Hay, A.J. Antiviral Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells provide an alternative host cell system for influenza A and B viruses. Govorkova, E.A., Murti, G., Meignier, B., de Taisne, C., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Multiplexed flow cytometric immunoassay for influenza virus detection and differentiation. Yan, X., Zhong, W., Tang, A., Schielke, E.G., Hang, W., Nolan, J.P. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Assessment of hemagglutinin sequence heterogeneity during influenza virus transmission in families. Gubareva, L.V., Novikov, D.V., Hayden, F.G. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Probing the structure of influenza B hemagglutinin using site-directed mutagenesis. Rivera, K., Thomas, H., Zhang, H., Bossart-Whitaker, P., Wei, X., Air, G.M. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. A practical approach to genetic screening for influenza virus variants. Zou, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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