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MeSH Review

Influenza B Virus

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Disease relevance of Influenza B Virus


High impact information on Influenza B Virus

  • Retrospective analyses of sera collected from 971 seals showed a prevalence of antibodies to influenza B virus in 2% of the animals after 1995 and in none before 1995 [6].
  • Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection [7].
  • The identical motif was found on the M1 matrix protein of influenza B viruses, and affinity-purified human anti-ERKRR autoantibodies recognized this epitope also in the viral amino acid sequence context [8].
  • Human anti-p68 autoantibodies recognize a common epitope of U1 RNA containing small nuclear ribonucleoprotein and influenza B virus [8].
  • Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Influenza B Virus


Biological context of Influenza B Virus


Anatomical context of Influenza B Virus


Gene context of Influenza B Virus

  • A bicistronic mRNA transcribed from the influenza B virus RNA segment 7 encodes two viral proteins, matrix protein M1 and uncharacterized small protein BM2 [23].
  • Our results support the hypothesis that the NS1 protein of influenza B virus plays an important role in antagonizing the IRF-3- and IFN-induced antiviral host responses to virus infection [24].
  • Expression of the full-length B/NS1 protein (281 amino acids), as well as either its N-terminal RNA-binding domain (amino acids 1 to 93) or C-terminal domain (amino acids 94 to 281), in the absence of any other influenza B virus proteins resulted in the inhibition of IRF-3 nuclear translocation and IFN-beta promoter activation [24].
  • Comparison with the only other known sequence of an influenza B virus nucleoprotein gene (B/Singapore/222/79) indicates striking homology [25].
  • Differences in the phylogenetic pathways of three polymerase genes were not only a reflection of genetic reassortment between co-circulating influenza B viruses, but also an indication that the polymerase genes were not co-evolving as a unit [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Influenza B Virus


  1. An influenza A virus containing influenza B virus 5' and 3' noncoding regions on the neuraminidase gene is attenuated in mice. Muster, T., Subbarao, E.K., Enami, M., Murphy, B.R., Palese, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of fatty acid beta oxidation by influenza B virus and salicylic acid in mice: implications for Reye's syndrome. Trauner, D.A., Horvath, E., Davis, L.E. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparative analysis of evolutionary mechanisms of the hemagglutinin and three internal protein genes of influenza B virus: multiple cocirculating lineages and frequent reassortment of the NP, M, and NS genes. Lindstrom, S.E., Hiromoto, Y., Nishimura, H., Saito, T., Nerome, R., Nerome, K. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutational analysis of influenza B virus RNA transcription in vitro. Lee, Y.S., Seong, B.L. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Reassortment and insertion-deletion are strategies for the evolution of influenza B viruses in nature. McCullers, J.A., Wang, G.C., He, S., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Influenza B virus in seals. Osterhaus, A.D., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Martina, B.E., Bestebroer, T.M., Fouchier, R.A. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection. McClung, H.W., Knight, V., Gilbert, B.E., Wilson, S.Z., Quarles, J.M., Divine, G.W. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Human anti-p68 autoantibodies recognize a common epitope of U1 RNA containing small nuclear ribonucleoprotein and influenza B virus. Guldner, H.H., Netter, H.J., Szostecki, C., Jaeger, E., Will, H. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein. Yuan, W., Krug, R.M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. A previously unrecognized influenza B virus glycoprotein from a bicistronic mRNA that also encodes the viral neuraminidase. Shaw, M.W., Choppin, P.W., Lamb, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Oral oseltamivir in human experimental influenza B infection. Hayden, F.G., Jennings, L., Robson, R., Schiff, G., Jackson, H., Rana, B., McClelland, G., Ipe, D., Roberts, N., Ward, P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Influenza B virus model of Reye's syndrome in mice: the effect of aspirin. Davis, L.E., Green, C.L., Wallace, J.M. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. A reverse genetics approach for recovery of recombinant influenza B viruses entirely from cDNA. Jackson, D., Cadman, A., Zurcher, T., Barclay, W.S. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of acylation sites of influenza B virus hemagglutinin on fusion pore formation and dilation. Ujike, M., Nakajima, K., Nobusawa, E. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Eukaryotic coupled translation of tandem cistrons: identification of the influenza B virus BM2 polypeptide. Horvath, C.M., Williams, M.A., Lamb, R.A. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of the neuraminidase gene of influenza B virus. Shaw, M.W., Lamb, R.A., Erickson, B.W., Briedis, D.J., Choppin, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Determination of the orientation of an integral membrane protein and sites of glycosylation by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis: influenza B virus NB glycoprotein lacks a cleavable signal sequence and has an extracellular NH2-terminal region. Williams, M.A., Lamb, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Influenza B virus requires BM2 protein for replication. Hatta, M., Goto, H., Kawaoka, Y. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Viral and cellular small integral membrane proteins can modify ion channels endogenous to Xenopus oocytes. Shimbo, K., Brassard, D.L., Lamb, R.A., Pinto, L.H. Biophys. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Ribavirin therapy in bone marrow transplant recipients with viral respiratory tract infections. Sparrelid, E., Ljungman, P., Ekelöf-Andström, E., Aschan, J., Ringdén, O., Winiarski, J., Wåhlin, B., Andersson, J. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of additional acylation site(s) of influenza B virus hemagglutinin on syncytium formation. Ujike, M., Nakajima, K., Nobusawa, E. Microbiol. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. The influence of substances changing the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate on interferon synthesis in chick embryo cell culture. Reizin, F.N., Roikhel, V.M., Chumakov, M.P. Arch. Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Influenza B virus BM2 protein is transported through the trans-Golgi network as an integral membrane protein. Watanabe, S., Imai, M., Ohara, Y., Odagiri, T. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. The N- and C-terminal domains of the NS1 protein of influenza B virus can independently inhibit IRF-3 and beta interferon promoter activation. Donelan, N.R., Dauber, B., Wang, X., Basler, C.F., Wolff, T., García-Sastre, A. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Influenza B virus genome: complete nucleotide sequence of the influenza B/lee/40 virus genome RNA segment 5 encoding the nucleoprotein and comparison with the B/Singapore/222/79 nucleoprotein. Briedis, D.J., Tobin, M. Virology (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Phylogenetic analysis of the three polymerase genes (PB1, PB2 and PA) of influenza B virus. Hiromoto, Y., Saito, T., Lindstrom, S.E., Li, Y., Nerome, R., Sugita, S., Shinjoh, M., Nerome, K. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells provide an alternative host cell system for influenza A and B viruses. Govorkova, E.A., Murti, G., Meignier, B., de Taisne, C., Webster, R.G. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Alterations in the hemagglutinin associated with adaptation of influenza B virus to growth in eggs. Robertson, J.S., Naeve, C.W., Webster, R.G., Bootman, J.S., Newman, R., Schild, G.C. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Antibody response in humans to influenza virus type B host-cell-derived variants after vaccination with standard (egg-derived) vaccine or natural infection. Harmon, M.W., Rota, P.A., Walls, H.H., Kendal, A.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Serological diagnosis of influenza B virus infection: comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the hemagglutination inhibition test. Turner, R., Lathey, J.L., Van Voris, L.P., Belshe, R.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Increased sensitivity and reduced specificity of hemagglutination inhibition tests with ether-treated influenza B/Singapore/222/79. Kendal, A.P., Cate, T.R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
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