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Disease relevance of Psychodidae


High impact information on Psychodidae

  • The requirement for IL-10 in establishing latency associated with natural infection was confirmed in IL-10-deficient mice challenged by bite of infected sand flies [5].
  • Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis induces CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage recruitment [6].
  • Maxadilan is a vasodilatory peptide derived from sand flies that is an agonist at the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor [7].
  • Maxadilan, the vasodilator from sand flies, is a specific pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide type I receptor agonist [8].
  • Genetic divergence in the cacophony IVS6 intron among five Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Psychodidae


Biological context of Psychodidae

  • Molecular evolution of the cacophony IVS6 region in sandflies [12].
  • Only AAT-class repeats were specifically isolated from a phagemid library of Lutzomyia whitmani, even though other microsatellites had similar abundances [13].
  • Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) also produce acoustic stimuli during courtship and therefore cacophony can be used as an interesting molecular marker in evolutionary studies in these important disease vectors [12].
  • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to elucidate genetic variation at 13 isozyme loci among forest populations of Lutzomyia shannoni from three widely separated locations in Colombia: Palambí (Nariño Department), Cimitarra (Santander Department) and Chinácota (Norte de Santander Department) [14].
  • In choice chambers, Lutzomyia longipalpis females were attracted and/or stimulated to lay eggs on sites containing hexane extracts of conspecific eggs, a result which supported previous findings on the presence of an oviposition pheromone on the eggs [15].

Anatomical context of Psychodidae


Associations of Psychodidae with chemical compounds

  • The differences in rate were higher in the sequences flanking the Thr-Gly repetitive domain, a region that has expanded in Drosophila but remained stable and short in sandflies, a result consistent with the coevolutionary scenario proposed for this region of the gene [20].
  • The repellency and insecticidal efficacy of Nopikex, a soap formulation containing 20% diethyl toluamide and 0.5% permethrin, was evaluated against a laboratory colony of phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis) [21].
  • Three hundred twenty-two pools were established from a population of 33,917 sand flies caught in CO2 light traps in the Ferlo Sahelian region of Senegal from November 1991 to December 1992 [22].
  • Three personal protection methods were evaluated against phlebotomine sand flies in Panama. Skin applications of five selected repellents including deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) provided a mean coefficient of protection (CP) of 99.2% against the attack of at least three sand fly species [23].
  • Sugar-deprived Lutzomyia youngi were exposed to each of the five most numerous plant species in a Colombian coffee plantation for 24 h and then tested for the presence of fructose by the cold anthrone assay [24].

Gene context of Psychodidae

  • The putative product of TAg5 shows extensive similarities to cDNAs characterized from Drosophila (Agr and Agr2) and sandfly Lutzomyia (LuLoAG5) [25].
  • Maxadilan, a vasodilator peptide from the salivary gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis also specifically bound to SH-SY5Y cells, and was equipotent to PACAP in [(125)I]PACAP and [(125)I]maxadilan binding inhibition, and stimulation of cAMP accumulation [26].
  • The 6PGDH and FUM data and those from 6-phospho-fructokinase and phosphoglucomutase distinguish Lutzomyia sp., a new species from Columbia to be described and named later [27].
  • The alleles of MDH-1 were 100 and 95 in genus Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia respectively, meanwhile in alpha-GPD the alleles were at 100 and 97 respectively except S. squamirostris [28].
  • Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. III. Impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of Leishmania infantum and L. major in Phlebotomus langeroni (Diptera: Psychodidae) [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Psychodidae

  • Using degenerate-primers PCR we isolated and sequenced fragments from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis homologous to two behavioural genes in Drosophila, cacophony and period [30].
  • The mortality rates of Lutzomyia verrucarum measured with WHO contact bioassay cones set on adobe walls characteristic of the endemic region indicated an LD95 for lambda-cyhalothrin of about 20 mg/m2, and no reduction in effectiveness for at least 6 months on indoor adobe walls sprayed with 25 mg/m2 [31].
  • Here we describe the molecular cloning and partial characterization of a complete cDNA from a putative gut-specific, blood-induced chitinase from the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis [32].
  • The patterns of exochorion ornaments on eggs of seven South American Lutzomyia sand fly species were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Mangabeira 1938), Lutzomyia (Micropygomyia) evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes 1936), L [33].


  1. Mitochondrial cytochrome b variation in populations of the visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis across eastern Brazil. Hodgkinson, V.H., Birungi, J., Quintana, M., Dietze, R., Munstermann, L.E., Deitze, R. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Similarity in moth-fly specific larvicidal activity between two serologically unrelated Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Higuchi, K., Saitoh, H., Mizuki, E., Ohba, M. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi and L. gomezi (Diptera:Psychodidae), Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northcentral Venezuela. Feliciangeli, M.D. J. Med. Entomol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the Palestinian West Bank: potential vectors of leishmaniasis. Sawalha, S.S., Shtayeh, M.S., Khanfar, H.M., Warburg, A., Abdeen, Z.A. J. Med. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of interleukin (IL)-10 in the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing and the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-10 receptor antibody for sterile cure. Belkaid, Y., Hoffmann, K.F., Mendez, S., Kamhawi, S., Udey, M.C., Wynn, T.A., Sacks, D.L. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis induces CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage recruitment. Teixeira, C.R., Teixeira, M.J., Gomes, R.B., Santos, C.S., Andrade, B.B., Raffaele-Netto, I., Silva, J.S., Guglielmotti, A., Miranda, J.C., Barral, A., Brodskyn, C., Barral-Netto, M. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional characterization of structural alterations in the sequence of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan yields a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide type 1 receptor-specific antagonist. Moro, O., Wakita, K., Ohnuma, M., Denda, S., Lerner, E.A., Tajima, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Maxadilan, the vasodilator from sand flies, is a specific pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide type I receptor agonist. Moro, O., Lerner, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic divergence in the cacophony IVS6 intron among five Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Bottecchia, M., Oliveira, S.G., Bauzer, L.G., Souza, N.A., Ward, R.D., Garner, K.J., Kyriacou, C.P., Peixoto, A.A. J. Mol. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Evaluation of 65% permethrin spot-on for prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis: effect on disease prevalence and the vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a hyperendemic area. Giffoni, J.H., de Almeida, C.E., dos Santos, S.O., Ortega, V.S., de Barros, A.T. Vet. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Field monitoring of cypermethrin residual effect on the mortality rates of the Phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. De Silans, L.N., Dedet, J.P., Arias, J.R. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular evolution of the cacophony IVS6 region in sandflies. Lins, R.M., Oliveira, S.G., Souza, N.A., de Queiroz, R.G., Justiniano, S.C., Ward, R.D., Kyriacou, C.P., Peixoto, A.A. Insect Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Relative abundance, isolation and structure of phlebotomine microsatellites. Day, J.C., Ready, P.D. Insect Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic variability among populations of Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia) shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Colombia. Cárdenas, E., Munstermann, L.E., Martínez, O., Corredor, D., Ferro, C. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemical factors controlling oviposition of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). Elnaiem, D.A., Ward, R.D., Rees, H.H. Parassitologia (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. The invertebrate growth factor/CECR1 subfamily of adenosine deaminase proteins. Charlab, R., Valenzuela, J.G., Andersen, J., Ribeiro, J.M. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The squash blot technique and the detection of Leishmania major in Phlebotomus papatasi in Tunisia. Esseghir, S., Ftaïti, A., Ready, P.D., Khadraoui, B., Zaafouri, B., Dellagi, K., Ben Ismaïl, R. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Biosynthesis and metabolism of juvenile hormone III from methyl farnesoate by exposed corpora allata of Lutzomyia anthophora. Mahmood, F., Carlson, D.A., Borovsky, D. J. Med. Entomol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Morphology of larval antennae and mouthparts of four Indian sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by scanning electron microscopy. Mukhopadhyay, J., Ghosh, K. J. Med. Entomol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular evolution of the period gene in sandflies. Mazzoni, C.J., Gomes, C.A., Souza, N.A., de Queiroz, R.G., Justiniano, S.C., Ward, R.D., Kyriacou, C.P., Peixoto, A.A. J. Mol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Laboratory and field evaluations of a repellent soap containing diethyl toluamide (DEET) and permethrin against phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Alexander, B., Cadena, H., Usma, M.C., Rojas, C.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. First isolations of arboviruses from phlebotomine sand flies in West Africa. Fontenille, D., Traore-Lamizana, M., Trouillet, J., Leclerc, A., Mondo, M., Ba, Y., Digoutte, J.P., Zeller, H.G. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Evaluation of personal protection methods against phlebotomine sand flies including vectors of leishmaniasis in Panama. Schreck, C.E., Kline, D.L., Chaniotis, B.N., Wilkinson, N., McGovern, T.P., Weidhaas, D.E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Potential sources of sugar for the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia youngi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Colombian coffee plantation. Alexander, B., Usma, M.C. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of genes expressed in the salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. Li, S., Kwon, J., Aksoy, S. Insect Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Maxadilan interacts with receptors for pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide in human SH-SY5Y and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Eggenberger, M., Born, W., Zimmermann, U., Lerner, E.A., Fischer, J.A., Muff, R. Neuropeptides (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Genetic relationships among phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the verrucarum species group. Kreutzer, R.D., Palau, M.T., Morales, A., Ferro, C., Feliciangeli, D., Young, D.G. J. Med. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. A preliminary isoenzyme study on five species of phlebotomine sandflies in China. Zhang, L.M., Leng, Y.J. Parassitologia (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. III. Impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of Leishmania infantum and L. major in Phlebotomus langeroni (Diptera: Psychodidae). Daba, S., Mansour, N.S., Youssef, F.G., Shanbaky, N.M., Shehata, M.G., el Sawaf, B.M. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. New molecular markers for phlebotomine sand flies. Peixoto, A.A., Gomes, C.A., de Amoretty, P.R., Lins, R.M., Meireles-Filho, A.C., de Souza, N.A., Kyriacou, C.P. Int. J. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Spraying houses in the Peruvian Andes with lambda-cyhalothrin protects residents against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Davies, C.R., Llanos-Cuentas, E.A., Campos, P., Monge, J., Leon, E., Canales, J. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular characterization of Llchit1, a midgut chitinase cDNA from the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Ramalho-Ortigão, J.M., Traub-Csekö, Y.M. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Patterns of exochorion ornaments on eggs of seven South American species of Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). De Almeida, D.N., Da Silva, O.R., Brazil, B.G., Soares, M.J. J. Med. Entomol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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