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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Myxedema


Psychiatry related information on Myxedema


High impact information on Myxedema

  • A 54-year-old woman with myxedema had hundreds of discrete cutaneous mucinous papules, which responded dramatically to appropriate replacement therapy with L-thyroxine [7].
  • These observations in an unusual patient with profound myxedema and cardiac dilatation permit correlation between the reversible changes in myocardial function and steady-state mRNA levels in a cardiomyopathy [8].
  • In no case do the same mutants lose their reactivity with TSH or blocking-type TSHR autoantibodies (blocking TSHRAbs) from hypothyroid patients with idiopathic myxedema [9].
  • Myxedema coma associated with lithium therapy [10].
  • In patients with suspect pretibial skin lesions, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test may be required to establish the presence of subtle underlying thyroid gland autonomy and the diagnosis of euthyroid pretibial myxedema [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Myxedema

  • An index developed for hypoxic ventilatory drive was markedly reduced in myxedema: 17 plus or minus 4.7 (S.E.M.) (normal, 126 plus or minus 8.7) (P smaller than 0.01) and increased to 78 plus or minus 12.6 (p = 0.02) with thyroid hormone replacement [1].
  • We have noted that early in the course of thyroxine (T4) replacement in myxedema, serum T4 concentrations may be transiently elevated before reaching a lower "steady-state" level [12].
  • The role of vasopressin in the impaired water excretion of myxedema [13].
  • Myxedema coma during long-term amiodarone therapy [3].
  • Other etiologic factors were myxedema (two patients), phenothiazine ingestion (six patients) and breast manipulation (four patients) [14].

Biological context of Myxedema


Anatomical context of Myxedema


Gene context of Myxedema

  • Microsomal (anti-TPO) antibodies are very useful markers of autoimmune thyroid disorders and are generally present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, idiopathic myxedema and Graves' disease [21].
  • The present report identifies an important immunogenic region of the TSH receptor and determinants on the TSH receptor for the two types of autoantibodies seen in hyperthyroid Graves' disease and hypothyroid idiopathic myxedema, TSAbs and TSBAbs, respectively [22].
  • In 22 cases of myxedema 22 HLA-A and B antigens were typed [23].
  • The THRA induced by TBII(+)/TSAb(+) IgGs as well as TBII(-)/TSAb(-) IgG was inhibited by blocking-type TRAb obtained from TBII(+) patients with myxedema [24].
  • This has allowed us to use these mutants to detect stimulating TSHRAb activity in the sera of hypothyroid patients with idiopathic myxedema who have blocking TSHRAbs [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myxedema


  1. Ventilatory control in myxedema and hypothyroidism. Zwillich, C.W., Pierson, D.J., Hofeldt, F.D., Lufkin, E.G., Weil, J.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism masked by hypothyroidism. Lever, E.G. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Myxedema coma during long-term amiodarone therapy. Mazonson, P.D., Williams, M.L., Cantley, L.K., Dalldorf, F.G., Utiger, R.D., Foster, J.R. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibodies producing complement-mediated thyroid cytotoxicity in patients with atrophic or goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis. Chiovato, L., Bassi, P., Santini, F., Mammoli, C., Lapi, P., Carayon, P., Pinchera, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and sequencing of a novel 64-kDa autoantigen recognized by patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Dong, Q., Ludgate, M., Vassart, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Extreme bradycardia during sleep apnea caused by myxedema. Abouganem, D., Taylor, A.L., Donna, E., Baum, G.L. Arch. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Multiple cutaneous focal mucinoses with hypothyroidism. Jakubovic, H.R., Salama, S.S., Rosenthal, D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversible alterations in myocardial gene expression in a young man with dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism. Ladenson, P.W., Sherman, S.I., Baughman, K.L., Ray, P.E., Feldman, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of thyroid-stimulating antibody-specific interaction sites in the N-terminal region of the thyrotropin receptor. Kosugi, S., Ban, T., Kohn, L.D. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Myxedema coma associated with lithium therapy. Waldman, S.A., Park, D. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Euthyroid pretibial myxedema. Chen, J.J., Ladenson, P.W. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Transient elevation of serum thyroid hormone concentration after initiation of replacement therapy in myxedema. Brown, M.E., Refetoff, S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of vasopressin in the impaired water excretion of myxedema. Skowsky, W.R., Kikuchi, T.A. Am. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Nonpuerperal galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Clinical findings, endocrine features and therapeutic responses in 56 cases. Gómez, F., Reyes, F.I., Faiman, C. Am. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Osmoregulation of plasma vasopressin in myxedema. Iwasaki, Y., Oiso, Y., Yamauchi, K., Takatsuki, K., Kondo, K., Hasegawa, H., Tomita, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of growth factors on the expression of proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-myc in FRTL-5 cell line. Yoo, H.Y., Oh, S.K., Yi, K.H., Cho, B.Y., Koh, C.S. J. Korean Med. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The thyroid gland as an intrinsic biologic response-modifier in advanced neoplasia--a novel paradigm. Hercbergs, A. In Vivo (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Fatal myxedema pericarditis in a Christian Scientist. Kelly, J.K., Butt, J.C. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. A case of pretibial myxedema associated with Graves' disease: an immunohistochemical study of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated protein. Shishido, M., Kuroda, K., Tsukifuji, R., Fujita, M., Shinkai, H. J. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. TSH and TSH receptor antibody-binding sites in fibroblasts of pretibial myxedema are related to the extracellular domain of entire TSH receptor. Chang, T.C., Wu, S.L., Hsiao, Y.L., Kuo, S.T., Chien, L.F., Kuo, Y.F., Change, C.C., Chang, T.J. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Thyroid autoantigens and their relevance in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity. Pinchera, A., Mariotti, S., Vitti, P., Marcocci, C., Chiovato, L., Fenzi, G., Santini, F. Biochimie (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular basis for the autoreactivity against thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. Kohn, L.D., Kosugi, S., Ban, T., Saji, M., Ikuyama, S., Giuliani, C., Hidaka, A., Shimura, H., Akamizu, T., Tahara, K. Int. Rev. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. HLA antigens and myxedema. Májský, A., Feix, C. Tissue Antigens (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunoglobulins of untreated Graves' patients with or without thyrotropin receptor antibody (determined by porcine thyrocytes) universally elicit potent thyroid hormone-releasing activity in cultured human thyroid follicles. Sato, K., Yamazaki, K., Yamada, E., Kanaji, Y., Miura, M., Obara, T. Thyroid (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Use of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) mutants to detect stimulating TSHR antibodies in hypothyroid patients with idiopathic myxedema, who have blocking TSHR antibodies. Kosugi, S., Ban, T., Akamizu, T., Valente, W., Kohn, L.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Intralesional triamcinolone therapy for pretibial myxedema. Lang, P.G., Sisson, J.C., Lynch, P.J. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of plasmapheresis and steroid treatment on thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins in a patient with exophthalmos and a patient with pretibial myxedema. Kuzuya, N., DeGroot, L.J. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Intravenous administration of levothyroxine for treatment of suspected myxedema coma complicated by severe hypothermia in a dog. Henik, R.A., Dixon, R.M. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Audiological and temporal bone findings in myxedema. Parving, A., Ostri, B., Bretlau, P., Hansen, J.M., Parving, H.H. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Myxedema associated with cardiac tamponade. Lin, C.T., Liu, C.J., Lin, T.K., Chen, C.W., Chen, B.C., Lin, C.L. Japanese heart journal. (2003) [Pubmed]
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