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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pericardium


Psychiatry related information on Pericardium

  • CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardium as wrapping material for the hydroxyapatite implants has shown promising results with minimal extrusion rates providing an effective alternative for sclera, eliminating the potential risks of CJD [6].

High impact information on Pericardium


Chemical compound and disease context of Pericardium


Biological context of Pericardium


Anatomical context of Pericardium

  • Ouabain infusion increased the systolic shortening from -0.4 +/- 0.9% to 10.6 +/- 3.1% (p less than 0.001) in the epicardium and from -1.0 +/- 1.1% to 17.2 +/- 3.4% (p less than 0.001) in the endocardium [22].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Between November 1986 and November 1993, 40 patients underwent mitral valve repair with artificial chordae using glutaraldehyde-tanned xenograft pericardium (GTXP) or polytetrafluoroethylene suture (PTFE) [23].
  • Histologically there were PAS-positive macrophages in the pericardium, myocardium, and valves of each of these patients [24].
  • In hematoxylin and eosin sections from the border of the infarct, capillaries supplied by the LAD (white) were either in areas of necrosis, in normal epicardium or, rarely, in normal tissue along the lateral boundary; those supplied by the LMCA (red) were almost always in normal regions [25].
  • In situ hybridization localized early fetal m-irp expression to the pericardium of the heart, to the umbilicus and associated allantoic mesoderm, and to the ventral lateral mesenchyme tissue surrounding the umbilical vein in the fetus [26].

Associations of Pericardium with chemical compounds


Gene context of Pericardium

  • Capsulin is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in mesenchymal cells that encapsulate the epithelial primordia of internal organs, including the kidney and lung, as well as the epicardium, which gives rise to the coronary arteries [32].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the MMP-9 was distributed within the perivascular area and under the epicardium of the atria [33].
  • Using anti-Bves antibodies, we show expression in cells of the proepicardial organ, migrating epicardium, epicardial-derived mesenchyme, and smooth muscle of the developing intracardiac arterial system, including the coronary arteries [34].
  • 5-Bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) and Ki67 positive cardiomyocytes were observed in the border area of the HGF-treated infarcted hearts. c-Met and c-kit positive cardiomyocytes were observed in the border area and epicardium [35].
  • Raldh1 is coexpressed with Raldh2 in the early heart epicardium, and is later specifically expressed in developing heart valves [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pericardium

  • Although transmural left ventricular perfusion was not influenced by amrinone, coronary blood flow was redistributed in favour of the epicardium, as endo-epi blood flow ratio decreased from 0.95 +/- 0.03 to 0.82 +/- 0.03 (P less than 0.05) [37].
  • Two-chain factor VIIa generated in the pericardium during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass : relationship to increased thrombin generation and heparin concentration [38].
  • A flexible 8F fiberglass instrument (Vantec, Baxter or Storz) and a rigid 110 degree 8F endoscope (Storz) were used for visualization of peri- and epicardium and for video documentation [39].
  • A bicuspid mitral bioprosthesis was prepared by mounting glutaraldehyde-processed porcine pericardium onto commercially available Brownlee-Yates stents [40].
  • RESULTS: In control animals (60 min total coronary artery occlusion (TCO) followed by 120 min reperfusion (Rep)) there were highly linear relations between IA and AR in the endocardium (r = 0.98, P < 0.01) and epicardium (r = 0.97, P < 0.01), which could be described by IAendo = 1.01 ARendo - 4.5 and by IAepi = 0.88ARepi - 3.6, respectively [41].


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  3. Flecainide-induced arrhythmia in canine ventricular epicardium. Phase 2 reentry? Krishnan, S.C., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Constrictive pericarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Demonstration of immunoglobulins in the pericardium. Jacobson, E.J., Reza, M.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study. Yoo, S.S., Teh, E.K., Blinder, R.A., Jolesz, F.A. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Use of bovine pericardium as a wrapping material for hydroxyapatite orbital implants. Gupta, M., Puri, P., Rennie, I.G. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. FOG-2, a cofactor for GATA transcription factors, is essential for heart morphogenesis and development of coronary vessels from epicardium. Tevosian, S.G., Deconinck, A.E., Tanaka, M., Schinke, M., Litovsky, S.H., Izumo, S., Fujiwara, Y., Orkin, S.H. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. CACP, encoding a secreted proteoglycan, is mutated in camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome. Marcelino, J., Carpten, J.D., Suwairi, W.M., Gutierrez, O.M., Schwartz, S., Robbins, C., Sood, R., Makalowska, I., Baxevanis, A., Johnstone, B., Laxer, R.M., Zemel, L., Kim, C.A., Herd, J.K., Ihle, J., Williams, C., Johnson, M., Raman, V., Alonso, L.G., Brunoni, D., Gerstein, A., Papadopoulos, N., Bahabri, S.A., Trent, J.M., Warman, M.L. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  11. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Merki, E., Zamora, M., Raya, A., Kawakami, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Burch, J., Kubalak, S.W., Kaliman, P., Belmonte, J.C., Chien, K.R., Ruiz-Lozano, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Rotational deformation of the canine left ventricle measured by magnetic resonance tagging: effects of catecholamines, ischaemia, and pacing. Buchalter, M.B., Rademakers, F.E., Weiss, J.L., Rogers, W.J., Weisfeldt, M.L., Shapiro, E.P. Cardiovasc. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Cardiac interstitial bradykinin release during ischemia is enhanced by ischemic preconditioning. Pan, H.L., Chen, S.R., Scicli, G.M., Carretero, O.A. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of minocin on the pericardium. Markiewicz, W., Ben-Arieh, Y., Best, L., Mordochovich, D., Rinkevitch, D. Oncology (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of verapamil on conduction delay produced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Hamamoto, H., Peter, T., Fujimoto, T., Mandel, W.J. Am. Heart J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Ventricular fibrillation after accidental injection of bupivacaine into the pericardium. Even, B.J., De Jongh, R.F., De Hert, S.G. Anaesthesia. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Alteration of the left ventricular diastolic pressure-segment length relation produced by the pericardium. Effects of cardiac distension and afterload reduction in conscious dogs. Shirato, K., Shabetai, R., Bhargava, V., Franklin, D., Ross, J. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Differences in the electrophysiological response of canine ventricular subendocardium and subepicardium to acetylcholine and isoproterenol. A direct effect of acetylcholine in ventricular myocardium. Litovsky, S.H., Antzelevitch, C. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of calcium channel blocker on responses of blood flow, function, arrhythmias, and extent of infarction following reperfusion in conscious baboons. Vatner, S.F., Patrick, T.A., Knight, D.R., Manders, W.T., Fallon, J.T. Circ. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Prolonged impairment of coronary vasodilation after reversible ischemia. Evidence for microvascular "stunning". Bolli, R., Triana, J.F., Jeroudi, M.O. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Epicardial induction of fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation via a retinoic acid-inducible trophic factor. Chen, T.H., Chang, T.C., Kang, J.O., Choudhary, B., Makita, T., Tran, C.M., Burch, J.B., Eid, H., Sucov, H.M. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of digitalis on subendocardial and subepicardial dysfunction during acute ischemia. Banka, V.S., Yamazaki, H., Agarwal, J.B., Bodenheimer, M.M., Helfant, R.H. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Mitral valve dysfunction resulting from thickening and stiffening of artificial mitral valve chordae. Kobayashi, Y., Nagata, S., Ohmori, F., Eishi, K., Miyatake, K. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Cardiac involvement in Whipple's disease. McAllister, H.A., Fenoglio, J.J. Circulation (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. The histological lateral border of acute canine myocardial infarction. A function of microcirculation. Factor, S.M., Okun, E.M., Kirk, E.S. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Nucleotide sequence, chromosomal localization and developmental expression of the mouse int-1-related gene. McMahon, J.A., McMahon, A.P. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Spontaneous host endothelial growth on bioprostheses. Influence of fixation. Hoffman, D., Gong, G., Liao, K., Macaluso, F., Nikolic, S.D., Frater, R.W. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Persistent T-wave changes after alteration of the ventricular activation sequence. New insights into cellular mechanisms of 'cardiac memory'. Geller, J.C., Rosen, M.R. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Results of sympathetic denervation in the canine heart: supersensitivity that may be arrhythmogenic. Inoue, H., Zipes, D.P. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Preservation of high-energy phosphates by verapamil in reperfused myocardium. Lange, R., Ingwall, J., Hale, S.L., Alker, K.J., Braunwald, E., Kloner, R.A. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Pinacidil-induced electrical heterogeneity and extrasystolic activity in canine ventricular tissues. Does activation of ATP-regulated potassium current promote phase 2 reentry? Di Diego, J.M., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor capsulin controls spleen organogenesis. Lu, J., Chang, P., Richardson, J.A., Gan, L., Weiler, H., Olson, E.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to human atrial remodeling during atrial fibrillation. Nakano, Y., Niida, S., Dote, K., Takenaka, S., Hirao, H., Miura, F., Ishida, M., Shingu, T., Sueda, T., Yoshizumi, M., Chayama, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  35. Hepatocyte growth factor prevents ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in mice via Akt pathway and angiogenesis. Wang, Y., Ahmad, N., Wani, M.A., Ashraf, M. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. Niederreither, K., Fraulob, V., Garnier, J.M., Chambon, P., Dollé, P. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Inotropic and vasodilating properties of amrinone depend on the mode of administration. Hartog, J.M., Saxena, P.R., Verdouw, P.D. Eur. Heart J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  38. Two-chain factor VIIa generated in the pericardium during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass : relationship to increased thrombin generation and heparin concentration. Philippou, H., Davidson, S.J., Mole, M.T., Pepper, J.R., Burman, J.F., Lane, D.A. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Pericardioscopy--a new diagnostic tool in inflammatory diseases of the pericardium. Maisch, B., Drude, L. Eur. Heart J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Bicuspid mitral bioprosthesis. Bodnar, E., Bowden, N.L., Drury, P.J., Olsen, E.G., Durmaz, I., Ross, D.N. Thorax (1981) [Pubmed]
  41. Endocardial and epicardial infarct size after preconditioning by a partial coronary artery occlusion without intervening reperfusion. Importance of the degree and duration of flow reduction. Koning, M.M., Gho, B.C., van Klaarwater, E., Duncker, D.J., Verdouw, P.D. Cardiovasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
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