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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Exophthalmos


Psychiatry related information on Exophthalmos

  • The cessation of methadone or morphine but not saline treatment followed by naloxone resulted in graded signs including wet dog shakes, escape attempts, self-stimulation and body weight loss and quantal signs including diarrhea, ear blanching, exophthalmos, ptosis, tachypnea and teeth chattering [6].

High impact information on Exophthalmos


Chemical compound and disease context of Exophthalmos

  • The exophthalmogenic factor and its parent thyrotropin molecule can stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in retro-orbital tissue membranes from guinea pigs, a mammalian model of exophthalmos; its polypeptide components have little or no such activity [12].
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients with Graves orbitopathy were studied before and 3 to 6 months after translid (6 patients) and coronal (10 patients) orbital decompression surgery for disfiguring proptosis [13].
  • Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy [14].
  • Daily replacement therapy with T4 (15mug/kg body wt) failed to alter significantly the exophthalmos which developed, even when replacement was initiated prior to the alterations of thyroid gland function; this observation tends to eliminate thyroid hormone deficiency per se as the causal event in exophthalmos [15].
  • METHODS: Five patients who developed symptomatic unilateral proptosis after steroid injection were studied and the literature was reviewed [16].

Biological context of Exophthalmos


Anatomical context of Exophthalmos


Gene context of Exophthalmos


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Exophthalmos


  1. Cyclosporin improves Graves' ophthalmopathy. Weetman, A.P., McGregor, A.M., Ludgate, M., Beck, L., Mills, P.V., Lazarus, J.H., Hall, R. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Recurrent Churg-Strauss vasculitis. With exophthalmos, hearing loss, nasal obstruction, amyloid deposits, hyperimmunoglobulinemia E, and circulating immune complexes. Sale, S., Patterson, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. The aftermath of orbital radiotherapy for graves' ophthalmopathy. Gorman, C.A., Garrity, J.A., Fatourechi, V., Bahn, R.S., Petersen, I.A., Stafford, S.L., Earle, J.D., Forbes, G.S., Kline, R.W., Buettner, H., Robertson, D.M., Bergstralh, E.J., Offord, K.P., Rademacher, D.M., Stanley, N.M., Bartley, G.B. Ophthalmology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Bone fragility, craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, hydrocephalus, and distinctive facial features: a newly recognized type of osteogenesis imperfecta. Cole, D.E., Carpenter, T.O. J. Pediatr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Indium-111 octreotide in Graves' disease and in the evaluation of active exophthalmos. Mansi, L., Rambaldi, P.F., Bizzarro, A., Panza, N., Di Martino, S., De Bellis, A., Del Vecchio, E. The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR). (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Methadone induced physical dependence in the rat. Ling, G.S., Tappe, N.S., Inturrisi, C.E. Life Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) transmembrane mutation in Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans. Meyers, G.A., Orlow, S.J., Munro, I.R., Przylepa, K.A., Jabs, E.W. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect on exophthalmos of various methods of treatment of Graves' disease. Gwinup, G., Elias, A.N., Ascher, M.S. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Somatomedin C in pathogenesis of malignant exophthalmos of endocrine origin. Hansson, H.A., Petruson, B., Skottner, A. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. ABCA5 resides in lysosomes, and ABCA5 knockout mice develop lysosomal disease-like symptoms. Kubo, Y., Sekiya, S., Ohigashi, M., Takenaka, C., Tamura, K., Nada, S., Nishi, T., Yamamoto, A., Yamaguchi, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Letter: Exophthalmos associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Wildinson, L.S., Panush, R.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure of an exophthalmos-producing factor derived from thyrotropin by partial pepsin digestion. Kohn, L.D., Winand, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Rectus extraocular muscle paths and decompression surgery for Graves orbitopathy: mechanism of motility disturbances. Abràmoff, M.D., Kalmann, R., de Graaf, M.E., Stilma, J.S., Mourits, M.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Exophthalmos and elevated thyroxine levels in association with lithium therapy. Rabin, P.L., Evans, D.C. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Production and measurement of exophthalmos-producing factor in guinea pigs. Valk, T.W., Taylor, R.E., Barker, S.B. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Proptosis after retrobulbar corticosteroid injections. Gupta, O.P., Boynton, J.R., Sabini, P., Markowitch, W., Quatela, V.C. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Transient uniocular visual loss on deviation of the eye in association with intraorbital tumours. Bradbury, P.G., Levy, I.S., McDonald, W.I. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of a case of Pfeiffer syndrome without cloverleaf skull and review of the literature. Nazzaro, A., Della Monica, M., Lonardo, F., Di Blasi, A., Baffico, M., Baldi, M., Nazzaro, G., De Placido, G., Scarano, G. Prenat. Diagn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid eye disease--medical or surgical therapy? Khalid, B.A., Ng, M.L. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Obstructive sleep apnea attack in complex craniosynostosis. Tajima, S., Imai, K. Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Glabellar rhytids in thyroid-associated orbitopathy. Saks, N.D., Burnstine, M.A., Putterman, A.M. Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Perioperative care of a patient with Beare-Stevenson syndrome. Upmeyer, S., Bothwell, M., Tobias, J.D. Paediatric anaesthesia. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Lorini, R., Gastaldi, R., Traggiai, C., Perucchin, P.P. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Axial myopia. A neglected cause of proptosis. Osher, R.H., Shields, J.A., Schatz, N.J. Arch. Neurol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Orbital decompression for disfiguring exophthalmos in thyroid orbitopathy. Lyons, C.J., Rootman, J. Ophthalmology (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Triad of exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and acropachy in a patient with Graves' disease. Anderson, C.K., Miller, O.F. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the orbit. Font, R.L., Maturi, R.K., Small, R.G., Garcia-Rojas, M. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Diagnosis of exophthalmos using orbital ultrasonography and treatment of malignant exophthalmos with steroid therapy, orbital radiation therapy, and plasmapheresis. Yamamoto, K., Saito, K., Takai, T., Yoshida, S. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Coronal or swinging eyelid decompression for patients with disfiguring proptosis in Graves' orbitopathy? Comparison of results in one center. Sasim, I.V., de Graaf, M.E., Berendschot, T.T., Kalmann, R., van Isterdael, C., Mourits, M.P. Ophthalmology (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of sympathetic system in morphine-induced mydriasis in rat. Wallenstein, M.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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