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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Europe, Eastern

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Disease relevance of Europe, Eastern

  • The increase in men can be largely explained by the major tobacco-related lung cancer epidemic throughout Europe. Lung cancer mortality rates rose steeply in Eastern Europe, where the truncated rates reached the highest levels ever observed, and there is no evidence of a leveling off [1].
  • Regina Salomea Rusiecki (later Pilsztynowa) was a young, poorly educated Polish Catholic woman in the 18th century who became well known in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire because of her skill in the treatment of cataracts and some other medical problems [2].
  • The distribution of 24 HLA antigens of the A and B loci was investigated in 197 Israeli Jewish patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from various Jewish ethnic origins including central and eastern Europe, countries bordering the Mediterranean, the Middle East and from native-born Israelis [3].
  • Diets lower in folic acid and carotenoids are associated with the coronary disease epidemic in Central and Eastern Europe [4].
  • BACKGROUND: Classic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare neoplasm, predominantly occurring in older subjects of Eastern Europe or Mediterranean descent [5].

Psychiatry related information on Europe, Eastern

  • The prevalence of atopy-related disorders was higher in Scandinavia than in Estonia, Latvia and Poland, which in turn had a higher prevalence than five other countries of eastern Europe with a culture less similar to western Europe. This supports the hypothesis that "Western life style" is associated with a high prevalence of childhood allergy [6].

High impact information on Europe, Eastern

  • BACKGROUND: Birch pollen is a common allergen in northern, central, and eastern Europe. Earlier studies of specific immunotherapy using birch pollen extract were not placebo-controlled or were only preseasonal [7].
  • METHODS: In PURSUIT, 9461 patients with acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-elevation were randomized to the platelet inhibitor eptifibatide or placebo for 72 h in 27 countries in four geographic regions: Western (n=3697) and Eastern Europe (n=1541) as well as North (n=3827) and Latin America (n=396) [8].
  • The presence of a tetracycline resistance determinant, tet(M) or tet(K), among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates also varied regionally, with a range of 11.9% to 46.2% among isolates tested from North America and Eastern Europe, respectively [9].
  • Sixteen MS(B) strains from Eastern Europe were found to contain a 3-amino-acid substitution ((69)GTG(71) to TPS) in a highly conserved region of the ribosomal protein L4 ((63)KPWRQKGTGRAR(74)) [10].
  • Methods A double-blind, double-dummy, randomized parallel group trial was performed across 18 centres in Australia, and 20 in Eastern Europe. Patients were treated with 3 g mesalazine for 8 weeks with the primary efficacy end point being clinical remission [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Europe, Eastern


Biological context of Europe, Eastern


Associations of Europe, Eastern with chemical compounds

  • Prevalence of skin test reactions to natural rubber latex in hospital personnel in Russia and eastern Europe [18].
  • In the middle and northern regions, the deposition was low but also decreasing regularly, and the main source region was probably the North Atlantic. In the far north-east, influence from Russia and eastern Europe was dominant during the whole period [19].
  • Neurotoxic components immunologically cross-reacting with toxins from V. ammodytes ammodytes venom from Eastern Europe were detected in the blood of all patients suffering neurological symptoms after a V.a.a. bite [20].
  • On the other hand, adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe consume too few vegetables, fruit and milk products in their diet (i.e. low intakes of Ca, fibre and vitamin C), which is less apparent in Western countries [21].
  • Pygeum africanum extract is available as Tadenan in many countries, including those in central and eastern Europe, for the treatment of mild to moderate BPH [22].

Gene context of Europe, Eastern

  • Relapsing pancreatitis due to a novel compound heterozygosity in the CFTR gene involving the second most common mutation in central and eastern Europe [CFTRdele2,3(21 kb)] [23].
  • Our data provide evidence that the H1069Q mutation-the most common molecular defect of the ATP7B gene in the Caucasian population-originates from Central/Eastern Europe. Screening of five prevalent mutations is predicted to reveal 70% of all mutant alleles presented in WD patients [24].
  • BACKGROUND: Several studies have concluded that atopy is more common in Western than in Eastern Europe. We aimed to study whether a similar difference exists between Norwegian and Russian adults living in geographically adjacent areas [25].
  • MtDNA diversity revealed that Lithuanians are close to both Slavic (Indo-European) and Finno-Ugric speaking populations of Northern and Eastern Europe. Y-chromosome SNP haplogroup analysis showed Lithuanians to be closest to Latvians and Estonians [26].
  • Epidemiological data about epilepsy from central and eastern Europe is scarce and results are controversial [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Europe, Eastern

  • Data on thyroid cancer incidence and mortality from the national cancer registry in Slovakia have been analysed for 1968-90, representing one of the first such descriptive epidemiological studies from Eastern Europe. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased over this period, particularly among women, from approximately 1.5 to 2.5 per 100,000 [28].
  • We were interested to find out to what extent these trends are preserved with the subtype A isolates spread in Eastern Europe. METHODS: About 474 HIV-1 strains were isolated by cocultivation with phytohemagglutinin stimulated and interleukin-2 activated PBMC [29].


  1. Patterns of mortality from major cancers in Europe. Negri, E., La Vecchia, C., Franceschi, S., Levi, F. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Regina Salomea Pilsztynowa, ophthalmologist in 18th-century Poland. Konczacki, J.M., Aterman, K. Survey of ophthalmology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Histocompatibility determinants in Israeli Jewish patients with multiple sclerosis. Brautbar, C., Cohen, I., Kahana, E., Alter, M., Jorgensen, F., Lamm, L. Tissue Antigens (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Diets lower in folic acid and carotenoids are associated with the coronary disease epidemic in Central and Eastern Europe. Connor, S.L., Ojeda, L.S., Sexton, G., Weidner, G., Connor, W.E. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Liposomal pegylated doxorubicin versus low-dose recombinant interferon Alfa-2a in the treatment of advanced classic Kaposi's sarcoma; retrospective analysis of three German centers. Kreuter, A., Rasokat, H., Klouche, M., Esser, S., Bader, A., Gambichler, T., Altmeyer, P., Brockmeyer, N.H. Cancer Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevalence of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Björkstén, B., Dumitrascu, D., Foucard, T., Khetsuriani, N., Khaitov, R., Leja, M., Lis, G., Pekkanen, J., Priftanji, A., Riikjärv, M.A. Eur. Respir. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of 2-year placebo-controlled immunotherapy on airway symptoms and medication in patients with birch pollen allergy. Arvidsson, M.B., Löwhagen, O., Rak, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Geographic variability in outcomes within an international trial of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Results from PURSUIT. Akkerhuis, K.M., Deckers, J.W., Boersma, E., Harrington, R.A., Stepinska, J., Mahaffey, K.W., Wilcox, R.G., Lincoff, A.M., Keltai, M., Topol, E.J., Califf, R.M., Simoons, M.L. Eur. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Diagnostic PCR analysis of the occurrence of methicillin and tetracycline resistance genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from phase 3 clinical trials of tigecycline for complicated skin and skin structure infections. Jones, C.H., Tuckman, M., Howe, A.Y., Orlowski, M., Mullen, S., Chan, K., Bradford, P.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Two new mechanisms of macrolide resistance in clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Eastern Europe and North America. Tait-Kamradt, A., Davies, T., Appelbaum, P.C., Depardieu, F., Courvalin, P., Petitpas, J., Wondrack, L., Walker, A., Jacobs, M.R., Sutcliffe, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of Eudragit-L-coated mesalazine tablets with ethylcellulose-coated mesalazine tablets in patients with mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. Gibson, P.R., Fixa, B., Pekárková, B., Bátovský, M., Radford-Smith, G., Tibitanzl, J., Gabalec, L., Florin, T.H., Greinwald, R. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. An overview of the North American residential radon and lung cancer case-control studies. Field, R.W., Krewski, D., Lubin, J.H., Zielinski, J.M., Alavanja, M., Catalan, V.S., Klotz, J.B., Létourneau, E.G., Lynch, C.F., Lyon, J.L., Sandler, D.P., Schoenberg, J.B., Steck, D.J., Stolwijk, J.A., Weinberg, C., Wilcox, H.B. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Activity of telithromycin compared with seven other agents against 1039 Streptococcus pyogenes pediatric isolates from ten centers in central and eastern Europe. Bozdogan, B., Appelbaum, P.C., Kelly, L.M., Hoellman, D.B., Tambic-Andrasevic, A., Drukalska, L., Hryniewicz, W., Hupkova, H., Jacobs, M.R., Kolman, J., Konkoly-Thege, M., Miciuleviciene, J., Pana, M., Setchanova, L., Trupl, J., Urbaskova, P. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a novel 21-kb deletion, CFTRdele2,3(21 kb), in the CFTR gene: a cystic fibrosis mutation of Slavic origin common in Central and East Europe. Dörk, T., Macek, M., Mekus, F., Tümmler, B., Tzountzouris, J., Casals, T., Krebsová, A., Koudová, M., Sakmaryová, I., Macek, M., Vávrová, V., Zemková, D., Ginter, E., Petrova, N.V., Ivaschenko, T., Baranov, V., Witt, M., Pogorzelski, A., Bal, J., Zékanowsky, C., Wagner, K., Stuhrmann, M., Bauer, I., Seydewitz, H.H., Neumann, T., Jakubiczka, S. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Y-chromosome DNA haplotype XI in Eastern Europe. Lucotte, G., Mercier, G., Dieterlen, F. Hum. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Minimum health indicator set for South Eastern Europe. Bardehle, D. Croat. Med. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Mutational analysis of the BRCA1 gene in 30 Czech ovarian cancer patients. Zikan, M., Pohlreich, P., Stribrna, J. J. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Prevalence of skin test reactions to natural rubber latex in hospital personnel in Russia and eastern Europe. Nolte, H., Babakhin, A., Babanin, A., Bakhutashvili, V., Beloglazov, V., Bezruchenko, O., Blaziene, A., Chuchalin, A., Drannik, G., Endre, L., Khaitov, R., Khanferyan, R., Kowal, K., Kowalski, M., Markov, A., Petrov, R., Puchlik, B., Rosovenko, A., Sepiashvili, R., Stepka, K., Titov, L., Tsybulkina, V., Yashina, L., Zakirova, I., DuBuske, L.M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Atmospheric deposition of lead in Norway: spatial and temporal variation in isotopic composition. Steinnes, E., Aberg, G., Hjelmseth, H. Sci. Total Environ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Unusual neurotoxic envenomations by Vipera aspis aspis snakes in France. de Haro, L., Robbe-Vincent, A., Saliou, B., Valli, M., Bon, C., Choumet, V. Human & experimental toxicology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe. Parízková, J. European journal of clinical nutrition. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficacy and acceptability of tadenan (Pygeum africanum extract) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a multicentre trial in central Europe. Breza, J., Dzurny, O., Borowka, A., Hanus, T., Petrik, R., Blane, G., Chadha-Boreham, H. Current medical research and opinion. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Relapsing pancreatitis due to a novel compound heterozygosity in the CFTR gene involving the second most common mutation in central and eastern Europe [CFTRdele2,3(21 kb)]. Lamprecht, G., Mau, U.A., Kortum, C., Raible, A., Stern, M., Riess, O., Gregor, M. Pancreatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutation analysis of the ATP7B gene and genotype/phenotype correlation in 227 patients with Wilson disease. Vrabelova, S., Letocha, O., Borsky, M., Kozak, L. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Atopy in Norwegian and Russian adults: a population-based study from the common border area. Smith-Sivertsen, T., Tchachtchine, V., Lund, E. Allergy (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuanians. Kasperaviciūte, D., Kucinskas, V., Stoneking, M. Ann. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Prevalence of adult epilepsy in Estonia. Oun, A., Haldre, S., Mägi, M. Epilepsy Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Thyroid cancer in Slovakia, 1968-1990: incidence, mortality and histological types. Plesko, I., Macfarlane, G.J., Obsitnikova, A., Vlasak, V., Kramarova, E. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Characteristics of HIV-1 env V3 loop sequences for subtype A1 variant spread in Eastern Europe. Papuashvili, M.N., Novokhatsky, A.S., Shcherbakova, T.I. Infect. Genet. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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