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MeSH Review

Middle East

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Disease relevance of Middle East

  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is thought to be rare among the Arab populations from the Middle East and little data have been reported so far [1].
  • The relatedness of 40 strains of Sindbis virus (SIN) from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa was investigated by limited sequencing within the gene encoding the E2 glycoprotein corresponding to amino acid residues 117 to 229 and encompassing one of the major neutralization epitopes [2].
  • It has been eradicated successfully using a live, attenuated vaccine from most part of the world leaving a few foci of disease in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. We have developed transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants expressing hemagglutinin (H) protein of rinderpest virus (RPV), which is antigenically authentic [3].
  • Two main types of hereditary iron overload are well recognized: (1) HLA-linked hemochromatosis in populations derived from Europe and (2) iron overload complicating thalassaemia major and intermedia syndromes in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean [4].
  • Poliomyelitis control in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip: changing strategies with the goal of eradication in an endemic area [5].

Psychiatry related information on Middle East


High impact information on Middle East

  • In Jordan and the West Bank, fewer than one third live in camps, whereas in the Gaza Strip and Lebanon, conditions are more crowded [7].
  • State of 'Desert Shield' military medicine at deadline time in the Middle East crisis [8].
  • Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Europe and the Near East have suggested that, in contrast with classical markers and the Y chromosome, mtDNA does not exhibit significant geographical structuring [9].
  • L.L. CavalliSforza [(1988) Munibe 6, 129-137] and C. Renfrew [(1991) Cambridge Archaeol. J. 1, 3-23] proposed that neolithic farmers from the Near East propagated a group of related ancestral languages, from which three or four linguistic families developed [10].
  • Origin and spread of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD-Mediterranean) in the Middle East [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Middle East

  • n epidemiologic survey of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) occurring in Israel, Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip between the years 1976 and 1981, revealed 205 cases of ALL and 69 of NHL [12].
  • Wethers treated with dexamethasone trimethylacetate on arrival at an assembly point for live export arrived in the Middle East 23 days later with a lower mean weight loss, partly because fewer sheep lost a significant amount of weight [13].
  • There is an increased frequency of gestational diabetes in Oriental women and those from the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East Once diagnosed, careful monitoring of diabetes is essential during pregnancy to minimise complications to mother and baby Mothers should be taught to monitor their own blood glucose levels [14].
  • Thalassemia remains a significant health problem in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. In such patients, generally high iron levels make free oxygen radicals accessible, for example, through Fenton-type chemistry, and generate superoxide and hydroxyl radicals [15].

Biological context of Middle East


Anatomical context of Middle East


Associations of Middle East with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, C subtypes were found predominantly in classic KS and in iatrogenic and AIDS KS in the Middle East and Asia, whereas U.S. AIDS KS samples were primarily A1, A4, and C3 variants [24].
  • Distribution is world-wide with peak prevalence in the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and areas of Africa. Transmission occurs by direct parenteral inoculation and by non-parenteral routes linked to close body contacts [25].
  • The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and animal husbandry in the Near East and Mediterranean Region began some 12,000 years ago [26].
  • Because many Israeli areas and much of the West Bank area of the Palestinian National Authority sit on the same phosphate deposits, regional joint projects for surveillance and control may be indicated [27].
  • Each of the clusters (north, south, and middle-east coast) was characterized by a high frequency of a particular lineage (C4, C2, and 9-bp deletion, respectively) [28].

Gene context of Middle East

  • Seipin mutations were found in patients from families originating from Europe and the Middle East. AGPAT2 mutations were found predominantly in African ancestry [29].
  • In XRCC1, hMSH3 exon 21 and hMLH1 Africa clusters either with Middle East and Europe or with Southeast Asia, which could be related to the demographic history of human populations, whereby human migrations and genetic drift rather than selection would account for the observed differences [30].
  • A similar replacement pattern of G6PD Mediterranean is described from persons living in Mediterranean countries and Middle East countries [31].
  • Patients having three or more active CYP2D6 alleles (up to 29% in North Africa and the Middle East), are called CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers (UMs) [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The KIF21A gene mutation R954W was detected in the patients with CFEOM1 screened in this study, all of whom were Japanese, reflecting similar reports from Europe, America, the Middle East, and Japan. We suggest that mutations of the KIF21A gene contribute to the development of CFEOM1 regardless of ethnicity [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Middle East

  • A nutrition survey was performed in 1990 among children 6 through 35 mo of age living in Palestinian refugee camps in Syria, Jordan, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Lebanon [34].
  • We found a comparatively low seroprevalence rate of 2.1% for the Arab countries and the Middle East. Our results show that there definitely is a risk for long-term expatriates to acquire HEV infection; however, in most of our cases infection seems to have been non- or oligo-symptomatic [35].
  • Here, we report the first case of a patient with both cutaneous and visceral KS who was successfully treated in the Middle East by conversion from a cyclosporine-based to a sirolimus-based immunosuppression regimen [36].


  1. Cystic fibrosis in Lebanon: distribution of CFTR mutations among Arab communities. Desgeorges, M., Mégarbané, A., Guittard, C., Carles, S., Loiselet, J., Demaille, J., Claustres, M. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic relatedness of Sindbis virus strains from Europe, Middle East, and Africa. Norder, H., Lundström, J.O., Kozuch, O., Magnius, L.O. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Systemic and oral immunogenicity of hemagglutinin protein of rinderpest virus expressed by transgenic peanut plants in a mouse model. Khandelwal, A., Renukaradhya, G.J., Rajasekhar, M., Sita, G.L., Shaila, M.S. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Etiologies, consequences, and treatment of iron overload. Gordeuk, V.R., McLaren, G.D., Samowitz, W. Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Poliomyelitis control in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip: changing strategies with the goal of eradication in an endemic area. Goldblum, N., Gerichter, C.B., Tulchinsky, T.H., Melnick, J.L. Bull. World Health Organ. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The psychological impact of the Intifada on Palestinian children in the occupied West Bank and Gaza: an exploratory study. Baker, A.M. The American journal of orthopsychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. UNRWA and the health of Palestinian refugees. United Nations Relief and Works Agency. Lilienfield, L.S., Rose, J.C., Corn, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. State of 'Desert Shield' military medicine at deadline time in the Middle East crisis. Gunby, P. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA. Richards, M., Macaulay, V., Torroni, A., Bandelt, H.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic evidence on origin and dispersal of human populations speaking languages of the Nostratic macrofamily. Barbujani, G., Pilastro, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Origin and spread of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD-Mediterranean) in the Middle East. Kurdi-Haidar, B., Mason, P.J., Berrebi, A., Ankra-Badu, G., al-Ali, A., Oppenheim, A., Luzzatto, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. The epidemiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel between 1976 and 1981. Ramot, B., Ben-Bassat, I., Brecher, A., Zaizov, R., Modan, M. Leuk. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Improved feed intake and body weight change in sheep treated with dexamethasone at entry into pens or feedlots. Adams, N.R., Sanders, M.R. Aust. Vet. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Stewart, M., Taylor, R. Professional care of mother and child. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of antioxidant flavonoids and a food mutagen on lymphocytes of a thalassemia patient without chelation therapy in the Comet assay. Anderson, D., Dhawan, A., Yardley-Jones, A., Ioannides, C., Webb, J. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Epidemiology of reproductive and hormonal factors in thyroid cancer: evidence from a case-control study in the Middle East. Memon, A., Darif, M., Al-Saleh, K., Suresh, A. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetics of congenital deafness in the Palestinian population: multiple connexin 26 alleles with shared origins in the Middle East. Shahin, H., Walsh, T., Sobe, T., Lynch, E., King, M.C., Avraham, K.B., Kanaan, M. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. High epidermal growth factor receptor amplification rate but low mutation frequency in Middle East lung cancer population. Al-Kuraya, K., Siraj, A.K., Bavi, P., Al-Jommah, N., Ezzat, A., Sheikh, S., Amr, S., Al-Dayel, F., Simon, R., Guido, S. Hum. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Study of the HLA gene and antigen frequency from a Saudi Arabian hospital. Sheth, K.V., Edwards, J.A., Godwin, J.T. Tissue Antigens (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Diversity of some gene frequencies in European and Asian populations. IV. Genetic population structure assessed by the variogram. Barbujani, G. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance among prevalent urinary tract bacterial isolates in the Gaza Strip. Astal, Z.E. Singapore medical journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Thiamine deficiency in sheep exported live by sea. Thomas, K.W., Kelly, A.P., Beers, P.T., Brennan, R.G. Aust. Vet. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. A survey of vernal keratoconjunctivitis and other eosinophil-mediated external eye diseases amongst Palestinians. O'Shea, J.G. Ophthalmic epidemiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. High-level variability in the ORF-K1 membrane protein gene at the left end of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome defines four major virus subtypes and multiple variants or clades in different human populations. Zong, J.C., Ciufo, D.M., Alcendor, D.J., Wan, X., Nicholas, J., Browning, P.J., Rady, P.L., Tyring, S.K., Orenstein, J.M., Rabkin, C.S., Su, I.J., Powell, K.F., Croxson, M., Foreman, K.E., Nickoloff, B.J., Alkan, S., Hayward, G.S. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Delta hepatitis--present status. Rizzetto, M., Verme, G. J. Hepatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Human dietary change. Ulijaszek, S.J. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Radon exposures in a Jerusalem public school. Richter, E.D., Neeman, E., Fischer, I., Berdugo, M., Westin, J.B., Kleinstern, J., Margaliot, M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in nine aboriginal groups of Taiwan: implications for the population history of aboriginal Taiwanese. Tajima, A., Sun, C.S., Pan, I.H., Ishida, T., Saitou, N., Horai, S. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene and phenotype analysis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy in Japanese: a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in seipin gene. Ebihara, K., Kusakabe, T., Masuzaki, H., Kobayashi, N., Tanaka, T., Chusho, H., Miyanaga, F., Miyazawa, T., Hayashi, T., Hosoda, K., Ogawa, Y., Nakao, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Variable continental distribution of polymorphisms in the coding regions of DNA-repair genes. Mathonnet, G., Labuda, D., Meloche, C., Wambach, T., Krajinovic, M., Sinnett, D. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Two cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Nepalese belonging to the G6PD Mediterranean-type, not India-Pakistan sub-type but Mediterranean-Middle East sub-type. Matsuoka, H., Jichun, W., Hirai, M., Yoshida, S., Arai, M., Ishii, A., Baral, M.P. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Clinical guidelines for psychiatrists for the use of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and CYP450 2C19. de Leon, J., Armstrong, S.C., Cozza, K.L. Psychosomatics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Recurrent mutation of the KIF21A gene in Japanese patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Shimizu, S., Okinaga, A., Maruo, T. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Factors associated with anemia in refugee children. Hassan, K., Sullivan, K.M., Yip, R., Woodruff, B.A. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Emerging viral pathogens in long-term expatriates (I): Hepatitis E virus. Jänisch, T., Preiser, W., Berger, A., Mikulicz, U., Thoma, B., Hampl, H., Doerr, H.W. Trop. Med. Int. Health (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Complete regression of visceral Kaposi's sarcoma after conversion to sirolimus. Mohsin, N., Budruddin, M., Pakkyara, A., Darweesh, A., Nayyer, M., Amitabh, J., Daar, A.S. Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. (2005) [Pubmed]
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