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MeSH Review

Skin Tests

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Disease relevance of Skin Tests


High impact information on Skin Tests

  • Subjects with positive tuberculin skin tests (induration, > or =5 mm) with purified protein derivative (PPD) were randomly assigned to one of four regimens: placebo (464 subjects), isoniazid daily for six months (536), isoniazid and rifampin daily for three months (556), or isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide daily for three months (462) [6].
  • All 11 contacts with positive tuberculin skin tests who were on the April flights and 2 of 3 contacts with positive tests who were on the Baltimore-to-Chicago flight in May had other risk factors for tuberculosis [7].
  • We investigated the association of self-reported asthma or allergic rhinitis with serum IgE levels and skin-test reactivity to allergens in 2657 subjects in a general-population study [8].
  • The 250-TU PPD and second-strength skin tests [9].
  • Anticoagulation with warfarin decreased skin test induration and tissue factor generation, but lymphocyte trnasformation remained unchanged [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Skin Tests


Biological context of Skin Tests

  • The repeating unit sequence of peptide S42 is analogous to the encephalitogenic tryptophan region of the BP molecules . The sequence homology is responsible for cellular recognition of this antigen by the skin test assay and suggests in vivo interaction between peptide S42 and EAE-inducing cells leading to suppression and reversal of disease [16].
  • The dose of lymphokine or PPD per skin test site was selected on the basis of comparable ability to enhance vascular permeability [17].
  • An immunosuppressive effect in the chlorambucil-treated group was shown by decreases in the white blood cell counts (P = 0.02), platelet counts (P = 0.04), lymphocyte counts (P = 0.001), IgA/IgM concentrations (P less than or equal to 0.05), and wheal size on mumps skin tests (P = 0.02) [18].
  • At onset of TPN, the mean serum albumin, transferrin and total lymphocyte counts were 3.06 +/- 0.38 g/dl, 175 +/- 62 mg/dl, and 1102 +/- 966/mm3 respectively, 15/18 children had subnormal anthropometric measurements and 17/18 patients were anergic to recall skin test antigens [19].
  • A numerical scoring system was devised to quantitate separately the severity of disease on clinical presentation, the findings on chest film, bone scan, gallium scan, serology and skin test with coccidioidin and spherulin [20].

Anatomical context of Skin Tests

  • A comparative study of strongly positive PPD skin tests in patients with tuberculosis showed significant basophil accumulations in five of nine subjects [21].
  • A similar mechanism was established in the other case by direct skin tests and antigen-induced leukocyte histamine release [22].
  • Previously, we showed that disrupting the disulfide bonds of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 resulted in 10-100-fold less skin test reactivity in mite-allergic subjects but did not change in vitro T-cell proliferative responses [23].
  • Using P815AB-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) and monitoring class I-restricted skin test reactivity in DC-primed mice, we have previously shown that the development of a Th1-like response to P815AB requires T helper effects, such as those mediated by coimmunization with class II-restricted (helper) peptides or by the use of rIL-12 [24].
  • Our previous studies have shown depressed eosinophil responses in skin test reactions to pollen antigens and compound 48/80 in those just completing a 1-wk course of daily steroids [25].

Associations of Skin Tests with chemical compounds


Gene context of Skin Tests

  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate skin test findings in a population-based sample of adult asthmatic patients and control subjects and to establish whether the IL1A genotype affects allergy testing [31].
  • CIR was measured in vivo by means of DTH skin tests and in vitro by assessing the production of interleukin (IL) 2, IFN-gamma (a typical Th1 cytokine), and IL-4 (a typical Th2 cytokine) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin [32].
  • The area of the LPR at skin test sites correlated with early IL-6 peak levels (R = 0.977; p = 0.004) and with total early IL-6 production (R = 0.885; p = 0.05), but not with late IL-6 production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[33]
  • RESULTS: ARG1 SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with asthma, but all 4 ARG1 SNPs were associated with the number of positive skin tests (P = .007-.018) [34].
  • One ARG2 SNP was related to the number of positive skin tests (P = .027) [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Skin Tests

  • Intradermal skin tests and bronchial challenge tests were performed with allergen together with an evaluation of nonspecific bronchial reactivity [35].
  • Immunological reactivity of the cytotoxic antibody-positive and -negative groups was similar with respect to their capacity to be sensitized to dinitrochlorobenzene, produce positive skin tests to microbial antigens, and produce antibodies to typhoid vaccination; serum immunoglobulins were comparable [36].
  • Frontal and lateral chest radiographs were performed at 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals, CD4 lymphocyte measurements at 3- and 6-month intervals, tuberculin and mumps skin tests at 12-month intervals, and medical histories and physical examinations at 3- and 6-month intervals [37].
  • Data collected on 12- to 74-year-old whites (N = 10,854) during the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 to 1980, a sample of the US population, were used to determine the association between various respiratory symptoms and the degree of allergen skin test reactivity [38].
  • To assess changes in viral load over 1 year, 20 pairs of tuberculosis cases and controls were selected and matched according to baseline CD4 lymphocyte count, age, sex and tuberculin skin test status [39].


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  2. PPD skin test conversion in health-care workers after exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in infants. Rabalais, G., Adams, G., Stover, B. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ditiocarb sodium ('Imuthiol') in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Lang, J.M., Touraine, J.L., Trepo, C., Choutet, P., Kirstetter, M., Falkenrodt, A., Herviou, L., Livrozet, J.M., Retornaz, G., Touraine, F. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
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  7. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight. Kenyon, T.A., Valway, S.E., Ihle, W.W., Onorato, I.M., Castro, K.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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  9. The 250-TU PPD and second-strength skin tests. Riebel, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Delayed hypersensitivity in man: effects of systemic anticoagulation. Edwards, R.L., Rickles, F.R. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of cellular-immune responses in vivo and in vitro by histamine receptor-bearing lymphocytes. Rocklin, R.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunological responsiveness in patients with bladder cancer. Fahey, J.L., Brosman, S., Dorey, F. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Expanded experience with an intradermal skin test to predict for the presence or absence of carboplatin hypersensitivity. Markman, M., Zanotti, K., Peterson, G., Kulp, B., Webster, K., Belinson, J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Trichophyton antigens associated with IgE antibodies and delayed type hypersensitivity. Sequence homology to two families of serine proteinases. Woodfolk, J.A., Wheatley, L.M., Piyasena, R.V., Benjamin, D.C., Platts-Mills, T.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Heterologous antigenic stimulation in induction of delayed hypersensitivity. Brunda, M.J., Raffel, S. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Suppression and reversal of allergic encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs with a non-encephalitogenic analogue of the tryptophan region of the myelin basic protein. Hashim, G.A., Sharpe, R.D., Carvalho, E.F., Stevens, L.E. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. A comparison of the hematogenous cell infiltrate evoked by lymphokine injection with that of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Franco, M.F., Kelly, R.H., Morley, J. Am. J. Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunosuppression with chlorambucil, versus placebo, for scleroderma. Results of a three-year, parallel, randomized, double-blind study. Furst, D.E., Clements, P.J., Hillis, S., Lachenbruch, P.A., Miller, B.L., Sterz, M.G., Paulus, H.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Reversal of protein-energy malnutrition in children during treatment of advanced neoplastic disease. Rickard, K.A., Grosfeld, J.L., Kirksey, A., Ballantine, T.V., Baehner, R.L. Ann. Surg. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Treatment of coccidioidomycosis with ketoconazole: an evaluation utilizing a new scoring system. Catanzaro, A., Friedman, P.J., Schillaci, R., Einstein, H., Kirkland, T.N., Levine, H.B., Ross, J.B. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Basophils in tuberculin and "Jones-Mote" delayed reactions of humans. Askenase, P.W., Atwood, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Localized and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to human seminal fluid. Bernstein, I.L., Englander, B.E., Gallagher, J.S., Nathan, P., Marcus, Z.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Hydrogen exchange nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy mapping of antibody epitopes on the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. Mueller, G.A., Smith, A.M., Chapman, M.D., Rule, G.S., Benjamin, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. A tumor-associated and self antigen peptide presented by dendritic cells may induce T cell anergy in vivo, but IL-12 can prevent or revert the anergic state. Grohmann, U., Bianchi, R., Ayroldi, E., Belladonna, M.L., Surace, D., Fioretti, M.C., Puccetti, P. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Histologic studies of human skin test responses to ragweed and compound 48/80. III. Effects of alternate-day steroid therapy. Zweiman, B., Slott, R.I., Atkins, P.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. The spectrum of IgE-mediated responses to latex. Sussman, G.L., Tarlo, S., Dolovich, J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Isoniazid as preventive therapy in HIV-infected intravenous drug abusers. A decision analysis. Jordan, T.J., Lewit, E.M., Montgomery, R.L., Reichman, L.B. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Clinical experience with penicillin skin testing in a large inner-city STD clinic. Gadde, J., Spence, M., Wheeler, B., Adkinson, N.F. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Skin tests, penicillin G procaine, and pseudoanaphylaxis. Mirel, R.D., Garnick, M.B. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunologic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. Exacerbation by type A hepatitis and skin test antigens. Owen, R.L., Dau, P.C., Johnson, K.P., Spitler, L.E. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. The IL1A genotype associates with atopy in nonasthmatic adults. Karjalainen, J., Hulkkonen, J., Pessi, T., Huhtala, H., Nieminen, M.M., Aromaa, A., Klaukka, T., Hurme, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of 50- and 100-mg vitamin E supplements on cellular immune function in noninstitutionalized elderly persons. Pallast, E.G., Schouten, E.G., de Waart, F.G., Fonk, H.C., Doekes, G., von Blomberg, B.M., Kok, F.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin-6 is released in the cutaneous response to allergen challenge in atopic individuals. Lee, C.E., Neuland, M.E., Teaford, H.G., Villacis, B.F., Dixon, P.S., Valtier, S., Yeh, C.H., Fournier, D.C., Charlesworth, E.N. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Genetic polymorphisms in arginase I and II and childhood asthma and atopy. Li, H., Romieu, I., Sienra-Monge, J.J., Ramirez-Aguilar, M., Estela Del Rio-Navarro, B., Kistner, E.O., Gjessing, H.K., Lara-Sanchez, I.d.e.l. .C., Chiu, G.Y., London, S.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Allergic bronchial asthma due to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus hypersensitivity can be efficiently treated by inoculation of allergen-antibody complexes. Machiels, J.J., Somville, M.A., Lebrun, P.M., Lebecque, S.J., Jacquemin, M.G., Saint-Remy, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical and immunological significance of human melanoma cytotoxic antibody. Bodurtha, A.J., Chee, D.O., Laucius, J.F., Mastrangelo, M.J., Prehn, R.T. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  37. Lack of usefulness of radiographic screening for pulmonary disease in asymptomatic HIV-infected adults. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Schneider, R.F., Hansen, N.I., Rosen, M.J., Kvale, P.A., Fulkerson, W.J., Goodman, P., Meiselman, L., Glassroth, J., Reichman, L.B., Wallace, J.M., Hopewell, P.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. The association of allergen skin test reactivity and respiratory disease among whites in the US population. Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 to 1980. Gergen, P.J., Turkeltaub, P.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Impact of pulmonary tuberculosis on survival of HIV-infected adults: a prospective epidemiologic study in Uganda. Whalen, C.C., Nsubuga, P., Okwera, A., Johnson, J.L., Hom, D.L., Michael, N.L., Mugerwa, R.D., Ellner, J.J. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
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