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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Latin America

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Disease relevance of Latin America


Psychiatry related information on Latin America


High impact information on Latin America


Chemical compound and disease context of Latin America


Biological context of Latin America

  • The study included 29 ETEC isolates from Latin America and Spain expressing the phenotype O153:H45 CFA/I ST plus 1 rough derivative, 2 nonmotile derivatives, and 1 O78:H12 CFA/I ST isolate, and a representative of a genetically distinct ETEC group [18].
  • Acute promyelocytic leukaemia in patients originating in Latin America is associated with an increased frequency of the bcr1 subtype of the PML/RARalpha fusion gene [19].
  • The analysis of epidemiological data concerning human cysticercosis point to important advances in understanding the magnitude and distribution of this parasitic disease in Latin America, as well as the relationship of the elements that conform the life cycle of Taenia solium [20].
  • The presence of the P542 element was confirmed in 11 T. rangeli isolates from mammalian hosts and insect vectors originating from several countries in Latin America. Negative amplification was observed with different T. cruzi strains and other trypanosomatids [21].
  • The principal distinct APL epidemiological features that so far have been described are the constant incidence with age after age 20, equal incidence in males and females and higher frequency among patients originating in Latin America. The APL-specific PML/RARalpha gene rearrangement is different in Latinos and non-Latinos [22].

Associations of Latin America with chemical compounds


Gene context of Latin America

  • Although many new HLA-B alleles have been produced in Latin America, their net effect has been to differentiate populations, not to increase allele diversity within a population [28].
  • Systematic genetic study of Alzheimer disease in Latin America: mutation frequencies of the amyloid beta precursor protein and presenilin genes in Colombia [29].
  • In a previous study, we reported increased levels of soluble receptors of interleukin-2 (sIL2-R) in children with acute Chagas' disease, one of the main parasitic infections that is endemic in Latin America. We sought to analyze the pattern of different cytokines and soluble receptors in the sera of children with chagasic infection [30].
  • This is the first report of CTX-M-type enzymes in Bolivia and Peru and also the first report of the detection of CTX-M-15 in Latin America [31].
  • Chagas' disease is a chronic, debilitating, multisystemic disorder that affects millions of people in Latin America. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, has a large number of O-glycosylated Thr/Ser/Pro-rich mucin molecules on its surface (TcMuc) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Latin America

  • The primary use of this test is in the diagnosis and screening of donated blood in Latin America. When compared with sera positive by xenodiagnosis, the assay had a clinical sensitivity of 100% [33].
  • Monthly injectable contraceptives, containing a combination of a long-acting progestogen and an estrogen, have been used in Latin America and China for many years [34].
  • METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of CF patient population data from Latin-America, Canada, and The Netherlands, under the assumption that they represent stationary populations, was used to determined and correlates hazard rates, average cores and CF progression rates [35].
  • Thus, this study in Costa Rican infants supports the routine use of the pentavalent DTPw-HB/Hib vaccine as part of childhood vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean [36].


  1. Amiodarone has intrinsic anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and acts synergistically with posaconazole. Benaim, G., Sanders, J.M., Garcia-Marchán, Y., Colina, C., Lira, R., Caldera, A.R., Payares, G., Sanoja, C., Burgos, J.M., Leon-Rossell, A., Concepcion, J.L., Schijman, A.G., Levin, M., Oldfield, E., Urbina, J.A. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Activities of BMS 284756 (T-3811) against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program medical centers in Latin America (1999). Gales, A., Sader, H., Jones, R.N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Distribution of VP4 gene alleles in human rotaviruses by using probes to the hyperdivergent region of the VP4 gene. Steele, A.D., Garcia, D., Sears, J., Gerna, G., Nakagomi, O., Flores, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Three phylogenetic groups of nodA and nifH genes in Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium isolates from leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. Haukka, K., Lindström, K., Young, J.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries. Senanayake, N., Román, G.C. Bull. World Health Organ. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Behavioral effects of toluene in rats selectively bred for infantile vocalization rate. Bamat, N.A., Brunelli, S.A., Kron, M.M., Schulte, A.R., Zimmerberg, B. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Erectile dysfunction in Latin America and treatment with sildenafil citrate (Viagra): introduction. Becher, E., Glina, S. Int. J. Impot. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Ye, X., Al-Babili, S., Klöti, A., Zhang, J., Lucca, P., Beyer, P., Potrykus, I. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparison of loperamide with bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of acute travelers' diarrhea. Johnson, P.C., Ericsson, C.D., DuPont, H.L., Morgan, D.R., Bitsura, J.A., Wood, L.V. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Onchocercacidal effects of amocarzine (CGP 6140) in Latin America. Poltera, A.A., Zea-Flores, G., Guderian, R., Beltranena, F., Proana, R., Moran, M., Zak, F., Striebel, H.P. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Presence of the Mediterranean PKU mutation IVS10 in Latin America. Pérez, B., Desviat, L.R., Díe, M., Cornejo, V., Chamoles, N.A., Nicolini, H., Ugarte, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Gene therapy coming of age in Latin America. Podhajcer, O., Pitossi, F., Agilar-Cordova, E. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Dissemination of Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Colombia(5)-19 in Latin America. Gamboa, L., Camou, T., Hortal, M., Castañeda, E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG5501), and four other fluoroquinolones tested against 2,284 recent clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Europe, Latin America, Canada, and the United States. The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Group (Americas and Europe). Odland, B.A., Jones, R.N., Verhoef, J., Fluit, A., Beach, M.L. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Occurrence of single-point gyrA mutations among ciprofloxacin-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infections in Latin America. Gales, A.C., Gordon, K.A., Wilke, W.W., Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. A random sample survey of initial drug resistance among tuberculosis cases in Latin America. Laszlo, A., de Kantor, I.N. Bull. World Health Organ. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Urinary tract infection trends in Latin American hospitals: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000). Gales, A.C., Sader, H.S., Jones, R.N. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Beyond serotypes and virulence-associated factors: detection of genetic diversity among O153:H45 CFA/I heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Pacheco, A.B., Ferreira, L.C., Pichel, M.G., Almeida, D.F., Binsztein, N., Viboud, G.I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia in patients originating in Latin America is associated with an increased frequency of the bcr1 subtype of the PML/RARalpha fusion gene. Douer, D., Santillana, S., Ramezani, L., Samanez, C., Slovak, M.L., Lee, M.S., Watkins, K., Williams, T., Vallejos, C. Br. J. Haematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurocysticercosis: regional status, epidemiology, impact and control measures in the Americas. Flisser, A., Sarti, E., Lightowlers, M., Schantz, P. Acta Trop. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Amplification of a specific repetitive DNA sequence for Trypanosoma rangeli identification and its potential application in epidemiological investigations. Vargas, N., Souto, R.P., Carranza, J.C., Vallejo, G.A., Zingales, B. Exp. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. The epidemiology of acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Douer, D. Best practice & research. Clinical haematology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Worldwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and pharmacodynamic comparisons of gatifloxacin and levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae: report from the Antimicrobial Resistance Rate Epidemiology Study Team. Jones, R.N., Rubino, C.M., Bhavnani, S.M., Ambrose, P.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Olanzapine as alternative therapy for patients with haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms: results of a multicenter, collaborative trial in Latin America. Costa e Silva, J.A., Alvarez, N., Mazzotti, G., Gattaz, W.F., Ospina, J., Larach, V., Starkstein, S., Oliva, D., Cousins, L., Tohen, M., Taylor, C.C., Wang, J., Tran, P.V. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Geographic variation in the susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida glabrata to seven systemically active antifungal agents: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program conducted in 2001 and 2002. Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A., Boyken, L., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R.J., Diekema, D.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulatory decisions in a globalised world: the domino effect of phenylpropanolamine withdrawal in Latin America. Figueras, A., Laporte, J.R. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Norfloxacin versus placebo for prophylaxis against travellers' diarrhoea. Wiström, J., Norrby, S.R., Burman, L.G., Lundholm, R., Jellheden, B., Englund, G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Episodic evolution and turnover of HLA-B in the indigenous human populations of the Americas. Parham, P., Arnett, K.L., Adams, E.J., Little, A.M., Tees, K., Barber, L.D., Marsh, S.G., Ohta, T., Markow, T., Petzl-Erler, M.L. Tissue Antigens (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Systematic genetic study of Alzheimer disease in Latin America: mutation frequencies of the amyloid beta precursor protein and presenilin genes in Colombia. Arango, D., Cruts, M., Torres, O., Backhovens, H., Serrano, M.L., Villareal, E., Montañes, P., Matallana, D., Cano, C., Van Broeckhoven, C., Jacquier, M. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Patterns of cytokines and soluble cellular receptors in the sera of children with acute chagas' disease. Moretti, E., Basso, B., Cervetta, L., Brigada, A., Barbieri, G. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase genes in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy children in Bolivia and Peru. Pallecchi, L., Malossi, M., Mantella, A., Gotuzzo, E., Trigoso, C., Bartoloni, A., Paradisi, F., Kronvall, G., Rossolini, G.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Trypanosoma cruzi surface mucin TcMuc-e2 expressed on higher eukaryotic cells induces human T cell anergy, which is reversible. Argibay, P.F., Di Noia, J.M., Hidalgo, A., Mocetti, E., Barbich, M., Lorenti, A.S., Bustos, D., Tambutti, M., Hyon, S.H., Frasch, A.C., Sánchez, D.O. Glycobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Clinical evaluation of an EIA for the sensitive and specific detection of serum antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease). Pan, A.A., Rosenberg, G.B., Hurley, M.K., Schock, G.J., Chu, V.P., Aiyappa, A. J. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Monthly combined injectable contraceptives and neoplasia. Skegg, D.C. Contraception. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. The interactivity between the CFTR gene and cystic fibrosis would be limited to the initial phase of the disease. Masciovecchio, M.V., Gabbarini, J., Vega, M., Drittanti, L. Genet. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Faingezicht, I., Avila-Aguerro, M.L., Cervantes, Y., Fourneau, M., Clemens, S.A. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica (2002) [Pubmed]
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