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Gene Review

Szs1  -  seizure susceptibility 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Kasz1
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Disease relevance of Szs1


Psychiatry related information on Szs1


High impact information on Szs1


Chemical compound and disease context of Szs1


Biological context of Szs1


Anatomical context of Szs1


Associations of Szs1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Szs1


Other interactions of Szs1

  • Of these, the most compelling seizure susceptibility candidate is Kcnj10 [19].
  • We now confirm this seizure-related QTL ( Szs1) using reciprocal, interval-specific congenic strains and map it to a 6.6-Mb segment between Pbx1 and D1Mit150 [19].
  • Seizure susceptibility is dramatically increased in GAD65-/- mice backcrossed into a second genetic background, the nonobese diabetic (NOD/LtJ) strain of mice enabling electroencephalogram analysis of the seizures [37].
  • Galanin is a neuropeptide implicated in the regulation of feeding, reproduction, cognition, nociception, and seizure susceptibility [38].
  • This property of CA3 neurons, seen particularly when tissue conditions become abnormal (e.g., elevated extracellular potassium), helps to explain the high seizure susceptibility of Kcna1-null mice [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Szs1


  1. Repeated generalized seizures induce time-dependent changes in the behavioral seizure response independent of continued seizure induction. Samoriski, G.M., Applegate, C.D. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Assembly of a perivascular astrocyte protein scaffold at the mammalian blood-brain barrier is dependent on alpha-syntrophin. Bragg, A.D., Amiry-Moghaddam, M., Ottersen, O.P., Adams, M.E., Froehner, S.C. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 inoculation enhances hippocampal excitability and seizure susceptibility in mice. Wu, H.M., Huang, C.C., Chen, S.H., Liang, Y.C., Tsai, J.J., Hsieh, C.L., Hsu, K.S. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of subcutaneous injections of zinc chloride on seizures induced by noise and by kainic acid. Morton, J.D., Howell, G.A., Frederickson, C.J. Epilepsia (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Quantitative genetic study of maximal electroshock seizure threshold in mice: evidence for a major seizure susceptibility locus on distal chromosome 1. Ferraro, T.N., Golden, G.T., Smith, G.G., Longman, R.L., Snyder, R.L., DeMuth, D., Szpilzak, I., Mulholland, N., Eng, E., Lohoff, F.W., Buono, R.J., Berrettini, W.H. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Environmental risk factors for multifactorial epilepsy in EL mice. Todorova, M.T., Burwell, T.J., Seyfried, T.N. Epilepsia (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Seizure prophylaxis in an animal model of epilepsy by dietary fluoxetine supplementation. Richman, A., Heinrichs, S.C. Epilepsy Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduced anticonvulsant efficacy of valproic acid in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice. Schank, J.R., Liles, L.C., Weinshenker, D. Epilepsy Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. NPY and Y receptors: lessons from transgenic and knockout models. Lin, S., Boey, D., Herzog, H. Neuropeptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Sound-induced seizures in serotonin 5-HT2c receptor mutant mice. Brennan, T.J., Seeley, W.W., Kilgard, M., Schreiner, C.E., Tecott, L.H. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Thyroid hormone influence on the susceptibility of mice to audiogenic seizures. Seyfried, T.N., Glaser, G.H., Yu, R.K. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Ovarian cycle-linked changes in GABA(A) receptors mediating tonic inhibition alter seizure susceptibility and anxiety. Maguire, J.L., Stell, B.M., Rafizadeh, M., Mody, I. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Diacylglycerol kinase epsilon regulates seizure susceptibility and long-term potentiation through arachidonoyl- inositol lipid signaling. Rodriguez de Turco, E.B., Tang, W., Topham, M.K., Sakane, F., Marcheselli, V.L., Chen, C., Taketomi, A., Prescott, S.M., Bazan, N.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Development and persistence of kindling epilepsy are impaired in mice lacking glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 2. Nanobashvili, A., Airaksinen, M.S., Kokaia, M., Rossi, J., Asztély, F., Olofsdotter, K., Mohapel, P., Saarma, M., Lindvall, O., Kokaia, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide enhances seizure susceptibility in mice: involvement of proinflammatory factors: nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Sayyah, M., Javad-Pour, M., Ghazi-Khansari, M. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose. Greene, A.E., Todorova, M.T., McGowan, R., Seyfried, T.N. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Altered seizure susceptibility in mice lacking the Ca(v)2.3 E-type Ca2+ channel. Weiergräber, M., Henry, M., Krieger, A., Kamp, M., Radhakrishnan, K., Hescheler, J., Schneider, T. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Valacyclovir treatment ameliorates the persistently increased pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure susceptibility in mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Wu, H.M., Liang, Y.C., Chen, S.H., Huang, C.C., Chen, S.H., Tsai, J.J., Hsieh, C.L., Hsu, K.S. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Fine mapping of a seizure susceptibility locus on mouse Chromosome 1: nomination of Kcnj10 as a causative gene. Ferraro, T.N., Golden, G.T., Smith, G.G., Martin, J.F., Lohoff, F.W., Gieringer, T.A., Zamboni, D., Schwebel, C.L., Press, D.M., Kratzer, S.O., Zhao, H., Berrettini, W.H., Buono, R.J. Mamm. Genome (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Supportive evidence for an allelic association of the human KCNJ10 potassium channel gene with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Lenzen, K.P., Heils, A., Lorenz, S., Hempelmann, A., Höfels, S., Lohoff, F.W., Schmitz, B., Sander, T. Epilepsy Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Functional characterisation of missense variations in the Kir4.1 potassium channel (KCNJ10) associated with seizure susceptibility. Shang, L., Lucchese, C.J., Haider, S., Tucker, S.J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Association between variation in the human KCNJ10 potassium ion channel gene and seizure susceptibility. Buono, R.J., Lohoff, F.W., Sander, T., Sperling, M.R., O'Connor, M.J., Dlugos, D.J., Ryan, S.G., Golden, G.T., Zhao, H., Scattergood, T.M., Berrettini, W.H., Ferraro, T.N. Epilepsy Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. nor-1 regulates hippocampal axon guidance, pyramidal cell survival, and seizure susceptibility. Pönniö, T., Conneely, O.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Reeler homozygous mice exhibit enhanced susceptibility to epileptiform activity. Patrylo, P.R., Browning, R.A., Cranick, S. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Characteristics of putrescine uptake and subsequent GABA formation in primary cultured astrocytes from normal C57BL/6J and epileptic DBA/2J mouse brain cortices. Laschet, J., Grisar, T., Bureau, M., Guillaume, D. Neuroscience (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Synaptic vesicle glutamate uptake in epileptic (EL) mice. Lewis, S.M., Lee, F.S., Todorova, M., Seyfried, T.N., Ueda, T. Neurochem. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Mapping loci for pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure susceptibility in mice. Ferraro, T.N., Golden, G.T., Smith, G.G., St Jean, P., Schork, N.J., Mulholland, N., Ballas, C., Schill, J., Buono, R.J., Berrettini, W.H. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Fyn is required for haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. Hattori, K., Uchino, S., Isosaka, T., Maekawa, M., Iyo, M., Sato, T., Kohsaka, S., Yagi, T., Yuasa, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. gamma-Aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine binding sites in audiogenic seizure-susceptible mice. Horton, R.W., Prestwich, S.A., Meldrum, B.S. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures under dietary zinc deficiency. Takeda, A., Hirate, M., Tamano, H., Nisibaba, D., Oku, N. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Determination of amino acids and monoamine neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus of seizure-resistant and seizure-prone BALB/c mice. Vriend, J., Alexiuk, N.A., Green-Johnson, J., Ryan, E. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Kindling susceptibility and genetic seizure predisposition in inbred mice. Green, R.C., Seyfried, T.N. Epilepsia (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Enhanced synaptic transmission and reduced threshold for LTP induction in fyn-transgenic mice. Lu, Y.F., Kojima, N., Tomizawa, K., Moriwaki, A., Matsushita, M., Obata, K., Matsui, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Alterations in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity after pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of the fibroblast growth factor-2 system. Zucchini, S., Barbieri, M., Simonato, M. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Attenuated response to stress and novelty and hypersensitivity to seizures in 5-HT4 receptor knock-out mice. Compan, V., Zhou, M., Grailhe, R., Gazzara, R.A., Martin, R., Gingrich, J., Dumuis, A., Brunner, D., Bockaert, J., Hen, R. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. TS+OCD-like neuropotentiated mice are supersensitive to seizure induction. Campbell, K.M., Veldman, M.B., McGrath, M.J., Burton, F.H. Neuroreport (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Epilepsy in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Kash, S.F., Johnson, R.S., Tecott, L.H., Noebels, J.L., Mayfield, R.D., Hanahan, D., Baekkeskov, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in the type 2 galanin receptor (GALR2). Gottsch, M.L., Zeng, H., Hohmann, J.G., Weinshenker, D., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Hyperexcitability of CA3 pyramidal cells in mice lacking the potassium channel subunit Kv1.1. Lopantsev, V., Tempel, B.L., Schwartzkroin, P.A. Epilepsia (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. The role of catecholamines in seizure susceptibility: new results using genetically engineered mice. Weinshenker, D., Szot, P. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Routine tail suspension husbandry facilitates onset of seizure susceptibility in EL mice. Leussis, M.P., Heinrichs, S.C. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Fragile X mice develop sensory hyperreactivity to auditory stimuli. Chen, L., Toth, M. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  43. Repeated alcohol: behavioral sensitization and alcohol-heightened aggression in mice. Fish, E.W., DeBold, J.F., Miczek, K.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
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