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MeSH Review

Respiratory Sounds

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Disease relevance of Respiratory Sounds

  • BACKGROUND: The relation between lower respiratory tract illnesses in early life caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the subsequent development of wheezing and atopy in childhood is not well understood [1].
  • The presence of symptoms of involvement of other mediastinal structures such as dysphagia, hoarseness, or stridor (DHS), a higher grade of intensity, and a shorter duration of symptoms (less than or equal to 2 weeks) appeared to adversely influence relapse-free survival and survival [2].
  • Almost all symptoms (daytime and nighttime asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath) and the additional bronchodilator use were significantly reduced with nedocromil sodium treatment compared with albuterol treatment [3].
  • RESULTS: Wheezing infants had higher median serum ECP levels (13.4 micrograms/L) than children with nonwheezy respiratory tract infection (7.6 micrograms/L, p < 0.005) or healthy subjects (7.1 micrograms/L, p < 0.005) [4].
  • There were no associations between maternal antioxidant intake and wheezing symptoms and eczema in the children's first year [5].

Psychiatry related information on Respiratory Sounds


High impact information on Respiratory Sounds

  • Histamine was detectable in secretions of some patients with all forms of illness but was detected significantly more often (P = 0.05) and in higher concentrations in patients with wheezing [7].
  • Immediate and delayed reactions of itching, tightness, or wheezing developed in 14 subjects after allergen challenges following placebo intake and were prevented or substantially inhibited by cromolyn [8].
  • Association between genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and response to albuterol in children with and without a history of wheezing [9].
  • The levels of IL-11 were highest in patients with clinically detectable wheezing [10].
  • Exposure to cat allergen, maternal history of asthma, and wheezing in first 5 years of life [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Respiratory Sounds

  • We tested the hypothesis that methacholine hyperresponsiveness would be associated on follow-up with increased symptoms of chest tightness, dyspnea, wheezing, cough, and more frequent use of selected treatment modalities [12].
  • A 29-year-old man with pollen allergy had experienced immediate adverse reactions, such as itching of the eyes, rhinitis, wheezing, and general urticaria, after using disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) eye drops [13].
  • Inhaled budesonide for the treatment of acute wheezing and dyspnea in children up to 24 months old receiving intravenous hydrocortisone [14].
  • Despite treatment of the bronchospasm and readministration of the same dose of phenoxymethyl penicillin, wheezing recurred requiring stopping the desensitization procedure [15].
  • METHODS: Factor analysis was performed on 468 Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children enrolled in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, with complete information on 24 items, including skin test response to 7 allergens, total serum IgE levels, presence or absence of asthma attacks, wheezing episodes, hay fever, and cough [16].

Biological context of Respiratory Sounds

  • We partitioned total respiratory system resistance into airway (Raw) and tissue (Rti) resistance in 16 sedated infants (age 15 to 88 wk) with a history of wheezing disorders before and after inhalation of albuterol [17].
  • We determined the phenotype of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 291 children ages 1 mo to 15 yr who had been affected by attacks of wheezing recently requiring clinical attention [18].
  • The relationship between wheezing and lung mechanics during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects [19].
  • Methods: We studied associations of TNF-308 genotype with lifetime and current wheezing and asthma among 3,699 children in the Children's Health Study. We examined differences in associations with community ozone and by GSTM1 null and GSTP1 105 Ile/Val (A105G) genotype [20].
  • High-level allergen exposure, exposure to tobacco smoke, and lack of breast-feeding showed no association with wheezing [21].

Anatomical context of Respiratory Sounds

  • Total serum IgE and eosinophil count in children with and without a history of asthma, wheezing, or atopy in an urban community in Indonesia. The Respiratory Disease Working Group [22].
  • RESULTS: Respiratory syncytial virus-induced wheezing was associated with reduced phytohemagglutinin-induced IL-13 responses (medians, 213 vs 304 pg/mL; P = .026) from cord blood cells, and similar trends were found for wheezing in general [23].
  • However, alveolar macrophages from infants with recurrent wheezing accumulated less cyclic adenosine monophosphate than those from control subjects in response to all three stimulations [24].
  • A patient developed stridor, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, and obstruction of the superior vena cava and eventually died as a result of haemorrhage into a large intrathoracic cyst, secondary to a polystan pack inserted 38 years previously [25].
  • A 58-year-old euthyroid man with episodic flushing and a 2-year history of progressive wheezing was found to have a hypoechoic lesion in one lobe of his thyroid and hypercalcitoninemia in response to pentagastrin stimulation [26].

Associations of Respiratory Sounds with chemical compounds

  • Histamine and nocturnal wheezing [27].
  • METHODS: Infants younger than 12 months who had been admitted to hospital for an initial episode of wheezing, were randomly allocated intramuscular dexamethasone (1 mg/kg daily) or placebo, every 24 h for three doses [28].
  • Twelve asthmatic patients with nocturnal wheezing were given a single nocturnal oral dose of slow-release aminophylline or matched placebo in a double-blind crossover trial [29].
  • PATIENTS: Forty-four patients referred for methacholine challenge testing because of the clinical suspicion of cough variant or otherwise difficult to diagnose asthma, with normal or nearly normal baseline spirometry and without wheezing on routine lung auscultation during quiet breathing [30].
  • Cough and wheezing from beclomethasone dipropionate aerosol are absent after triamcinolone acetonide [31].

Gene context of Respiratory Sounds

  • CONCLUSION: In children with a family history of allergies and/or asthma, mononuclear cell phytohemagglutinin-induced IL-13 and virus-induced IFN-gamma responses at birth are indicative of the risk for wheezing in the first year of life [23].
  • Moreover, IL-10 responses during the convalescent phase correlated significantly with the number of wheezing episodes (r = 0.42, n = 46, p = 0.004) [32].
  • Interestingly, no association was found between IFN-gamma responses, IL-4 responses, or IFNgamma/IL-4 ratios and recurrent wheezing [32].
  • The TGF-beta1 (TGFB1) -509T allele was associated with respiratory syncytial virus-related wheezing in the first year (P = .0005) [33].
  • Increased serum MDC concentrations at birth are associated with the occurrence of wheezing during infancy [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Respiratory Sounds

  • BACKGROUND: In the Randomized ALdactone Evaluation Study (RALES), spironolactone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, significantly reduced mortality in patients with severe CHF [35].
  • A histamine bronchial-challenge test revealed bronchial hyperresponsiveness in 95% of the children who had a history of wheezing or asthma and who could perform the test reliably, indicating that most of them did indeed have asthma [36].
  • However, information about the relationship between viral infections and atopy among children whose attacks of wheezing lead to hospitalization is unclear [37].
  • Seven infants undergoing bronchoscopy for the evaluation of stridor served as non-CF controls [38].
  • We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheezing in the first 6 years of life among 453 children with parental history of atopy followed from birth [39].


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  5. Antioxidant intake in pregnancy in relation to wheeze and eczema in the first two years of life. Martindale, S., McNeill, G., Devereux, G., Campbell, D., Russell, G., Seaton, A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Sleep disorders and their determinants in multiple system atrophy. Ghorayeb, I., Yekhlef, F., Chrysostome, V., Balestre, E., Bioulac, B., Tison, F. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The development of respiratory syncytial virus-specific IgE and the release of histamine in nasopharyngeal secretions after infection. Welliver, R.C., Wong, D.T., Sun, M., Middleton, E., Vaughan, R.S., Ogra, P.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Cromolyn therapy in patients with bronchial asthma. Effect on inhalation challenge with allergen, histamine, and methacholine. Ryo, U.Y., Kang, B., Townley, R.G. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Association between genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and response to albuterol in children with and without a history of wheezing. Martinez, F.D., Graves, P.E., Baldini, M., Solomon, S., Erickson, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Interleukin-11: stimulation in vivo and in vitro by respiratory viruses and induction of airways hyperresponsiveness. Einarsson, O., Geba, G.P., Zhu, Z., Landry, M., Elias, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Exposure to cat allergen, maternal history of asthma, and wheezing in first 5 years of life. Celedón, J.C., Litonjua, A.A., Ryan, L., Platts-Mills, T., Weiss, S.T., Gold, D.R. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Prognostic value of methacholine challenge in patients with respiratory symptoms. Muller, B.A., Leick, C.A., Suelzer, M., Piyamahunt, A., Richerson, H.B. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Assay of specific IgE antibodies to disodium cromoglycate in serum from a patient with an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Wass, U., Plaschke, P., Björkander, J., Belin, L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhaled budesonide for the treatment of acute wheezing and dyspnea in children up to 24 months old receiving intravenous hydrocortisone. Sano, F., Cortez, G.K., Solé, D., Naspitz, C.K. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Successful use of aztreonam in a patient who failed oral penicillin desensitization. Loria, R.C., Finnerty, N., Wedner, H.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Factor analysis of asthma and atopy traits shows 2 major components, one of which is linked to markers on chromosome 5q. Holberg, C.J., Halonen, M., Solomon, S., Graves, P.E., Baldini, M., Erickson, R.P., Martinez, F.D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Airway and tissue resistance in wheezy infants: effects of albuterol. Jackson, A.C., Tennhoff, W., Kraemer, R., Frey, U. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. A genetic basis for heterogeneity of asthma syndrome in pediatric ages: adenosine deaminase phenotypes. Ronchetti, R., Lucarini, N., Lucarelli, P., Martinez, F., Macrì, F., Carapella, E., Bottini, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. The relationship between wheezing and lung mechanics during methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Spence, D.P., Graham, D.R., Jamieson, G., Cheetham, B.M., Calverley, P.M., Earis, J.E. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Associations of Tumor Necrosis Factor G-308A with Childhood Asthma and Wheezing. Li, Y.F., Gauderman, W.J., Avol, E., Dubeau, L., Gilliland, F.D. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Risk factors for wheezing in a subtropical environment: role of respiratory viruses and allergen sensitization. Camara, A.A., Silva, J.M., Ferriani, V.P., Tobias, K.R., Macedo, I.S., Padovani, M.A., Harsi, C.M., Cardoso, M.R., Chapman, M.D., Arruda, E., Platts-Mills, T.A., Arruda, L.K. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Total serum IgE and eosinophil count in children with and without a history of asthma, wheezing, or atopy in an urban community in Indonesia. The Respiratory Disease Working Group. Kartasamita, C.B., Rosmayudi, O., Demedts, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Bidirectional interactions between viral respiratory illnesses and cytokine responses in the first year of life. Gern, J.E., Brooks, G.D., Meyer, P., Chang, A., Shen, K., Evans, M.D., Tisler, C., Dasilva, D., Roberg, K.A., Mikus, L.D., Rosenthal, L.A., Kirk, C.J., Shult, P.A., Bhattacharya, A., Li, Z., Gangnon, R., Lemanske, R.F. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Nonspecific refractoriness to adenylyl cyclase stimulation in alveolar macrophages from infants with recurrent bronchiolitis. Galoppin, L., de Blic, J., Azevedo, I., Scheinmann, P., Vargaftig, B.B., Bachelet, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Fatal mediastinal compression as a late complication of surgical plombage. Skinner, J.S., Sinclair, D.J. Thorax (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Symptomatic C-cell hyperplasia associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Biddinger, P.W., Brennan, M.F., Rosen, P.P. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  32. Monocyte IL-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with recurrent wheezing in a one-year follow-up study. Bont, L., Heijnen, C.J., Kavelaars, A., van Aalderen, W.M., Brus, F., Draaisma, J.T., Geelen, S.M., Kimpen, J.L. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Genetic variation in immunoregulatory pathways and atopic phenotypes in infancy. Hoffjan, S., Ostrovnaja, I., Nicolae, D., Newman, D.L., Nicolae, R., Gangnon, R., Steiner, L., Walker, K., Reynolds, R., Greene, D., Mirel, D., Gern, J.E., Lemanske, R.F., Ober, C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Helper T-lymphocyte-related chemokines in healthy newborns. Leung, T.F., Ng, P.C., Tam, W.H., Li, C.Y., Wong, E., Ma, T.P., Lam, C.W., Fok, T.F. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Beneficial neurohormonal profile of spironolactone in severe congestive heart failure: results from the RALES neurohormonal substudy. Rousseau, M.F., Gurné, O., Duprez, D., Van Mieghem, W., Robert, A., Ahn, S., Galanti, L., Ketelslegers, J.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  39. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years. Celedon, J.C., Wright, R.J., Litonjua, A.A., Sredl, D., Ryan, L., Weiss, S.T., Gold, D.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
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