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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

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Disease relevance of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus


High impact information on Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

  • It was also highly specific (93.7%) in discriminating between lichen sclerosus and other disease/control sera [6].
  • These data, however, implicate p53 mutations as a later event in vulvar carcinoma and in marked contrast to the original expectation, our loss of heterozygosity data are consistent with loss of another locus (not p53) on 17p operating as a tumor suppressor in lichen sclerosus destined to develop vulvar carcinoma [7].
  • In addition we show that the protein and mRNA expression of CD44 in the epidermis of the involved lichen sclerosus et atrophicus skin from genital and extragenital areas is significantly decreased, and in some cases completely lost [8].
  • A complete disappearance of orcein positive material was observed in the superficial dermis of patients suffering from Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus [9].
  • Benign squamous epithelia were p16 negative, with the exception of lichen sclerosus, which contained focal and heterogeneously p16 positive in 42% [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus


Biological context of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus


Anatomical context of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus


Gene context of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

  • Thus, IL-1RN may be a candidate gene or severity factor for lichen sclerosus or may possibly be a linked marker to another, as yet undefined, gene [20].
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a lack of complaints in AR-positive lichen sclerosus patients [21].
  • Focal midepithelial staining with PCNA and Ki-67 was seen in one case of lichen sclerosus; a vulvar biopsy of this patient 1 year later was negative for VIN [22].
  • RESULTS: Weak TGF-beta 1 staining was demonstrated in the epidermis of all the lichen sclerosus, morphea, thigh and five of the eight normal vulvar specimens [23].
  • An immunohistochemical approach was used to characterize the inflammatory infiltrate in vulval lichen sclerosus, using monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68 and HLA-DR [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus


  1. Vulvar lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma: a cohort, case control, and investigational study with historical perspective; implications for chronic inflammation and sclerosis in the development of neoplasia. Carlson, J.A., Ambros, R., Malfetano, J., Ross, J., Grabowski, R., Lamb, P., Figge, H., Mihm, M.C. Hum. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in non-neoplastic and neoplastic vulvar epithelial lesions. Ferrandina, G., Ranelletti, F.O., Salutari, V., Gessi, M., Legge, F., Zannoni, G.F., Scambia, G., Lauriola, L. Gynecol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome in cutaneous connective tissue disease: generalized morphea, lichen sclerosus, fasciitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, and lupus panniculitis. Winkelmann, R.K., Connolly, S.M., Doyle, J.A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction typing of Borrelia afzelii from a skin lesion in a seronegative patient with generalized ulcerating bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Breier, F., Khanakah, G., Stanek, G., Kunz, G., Aberer, E., Schmidt, B., Tappeiner, G. Br. J. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen receptors in genital and extragenital lichen sclerosus: evidence for loss of androgen receptors in lesional epidermis. Clifton, M.M., Garner, I.B., Kohler, S., Smoller, B.R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Development of antigen-specific ELISA for circulating autoantibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1 in lichen sclerosus. Oyama, N., Chan, I., Neill, S.M., South, A.P., Wojnarowska, F., Kawakami, Y., D'Cruz, D., Mepani, K., Hughes, G.J., Bhogal, B.S., Kaneko, F., Black, M.M., McGrath, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Overexpression of wild-type p53 in lichen sclerosus adjacent to human papillomavirus-negative vulvar cancer. Vanin, K., Scurry, J., Thorne, H., Yuen, K., Ramsay, R.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Decrease in epidermal CD44 expression as a potential mechanism for abnormal hyaluronate accumulation in superficial dermis in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Kaya, G., Augsburger, E., Stamenkovic, I., Saurat, J.H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation and partial characterization of an elastase-type protease in human vulva fibroblasts: its possible involvement in vulvar elastic tissue destruction of patients with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Godeau, G., Frances, C., Hornebeck, W., Brechemier, D., Robert, L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. p16INK4A expression as biomarker for HPV 16-related vulvar neoplasias. Riethdorf, S., Neffen, E.F., Cviko, A., Löning, T., Crum, C.P., Riethdorf, L. Hum. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Carbon dioxide laser treatment of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Windahl, T., Hellsten, S. J. Urol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Autogenic masculinization. Punch, M.R., Ansbacher, R. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Penile lichen sclerosus et atrophicus treated with clobetasol dipropionate 0.05% cream: a retrospective clinical and histopathological study. Dahlman-Ghozlan, K., Hedblad, M.A., von Krogh, G. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen receptors and lichen sclerosus. Carlson, J.A., Murphy, M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Perineoplasty for the treatment of introital stenosis related to vulvar lichen sclerosus. Rouzier, R., Haddad, B., Deyrolle, C., Pelisse, M., Moyal-Barracco, M., Paniel, B.J. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Ki67 expression in lichen sclerosus of vulva in patients with and without associated squamous cell carcinoma. Scurry, J., Beshay, V., Cohen, C., Allen, D. Histopathology (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. The metabolism of fibroblasts from normal and fibrotic skin is inhibited by minoxidil in vitro. Priestley, G.C., Lord, R., Stavropoulos, P. Br. J. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Differentiating vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia from nonneoplastic epithelial disorders. The toluidine blue test. Joura, E.A., Zeisler, H., Lösch, A., Sator, M.O., Müllauer-Ertl, S. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of TIA-1+ and granzyme B+ cytotoxic T cells in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Gross, T., Wagner, A., Ugurel, S., Tilgen, W., Reinhold, U. Dermatology (Basel) (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism association with lichen sclerosus. Clay, F.E., Cork, M.J., Tarlow, J.K., Blakemore, A.I., Harrington, C.I., Lewis, F., Duff, G.W. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence of androgen receptor expression in lichen sclerosus: an immunohistochemical study. Kohlberger, P.D., Joura, E.A., Bancher, D., Gitsch, G., Breitenecker, G., Kieback, D.G. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, BCL2, and Ki-67 in vulvar tissues. van Hoeven, K.H., Kovatich, A.J. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor in vulvar lichen sclerosus. Farrell, A.M., Dean, D., Charnock, M., Wojnarowska, F. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Lichen sclerosus: evidence that immunological changes occur at all levels of the skin. Farrell, A.M., Marren, P., Dean, D., Wojnarowska, F. Br. J. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. A study of 76 cases and their relation to diabetes. García-Bravo, B., Sánchez-Pedreño, P., Rodríguez-Pichardo, A., Camacho, F. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone in the treatment of lichen sclerosus. Mazdisnian, F., Degregorio, F., Mazdisnian, F., Palmieri, A. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi in morphea and lichen sclerosus. Ozkan, S., Atabey, N., Fetil, E., Erkizan, V., Günes, A.T. International journal of dermatology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Autoantibodies to extracellular matrix protein 1 in lichen sclerosus. Oyama, N., Chan, I., Neill, S.M., Hamada, T., South, A.P., Wessagowit, V., Wojnarowska, F., D'Cruz, D., Hughes, G.J., Black, M.M., McGrath, J.A. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
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