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Chemical Compound Review

Loniten     3-hydroxy-2-imino-6-(1- piperidyl)pyrimidin...

Synonyms: Alopexil, Neoxidil, Prexidil, Regaine, Rogaine, ...
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Disease relevance of Rogaine


Psychiatry related information on Rogaine

  • A total of 21 patients received 2% minoxidil for treatment of erectile dysfunction with instructions to apply 1 cc of the solution slowly over the glans penis 20 minutes before intercourse [5].
  • Finally, the prevention of minoxidil-induced amnesia in the mouse by B25 and related benzylamines, comparable to the same effect shown by TEA and 4-AP, indicates that these compounds are endowed with potential pharmacological activity in the CNS as well [6].
  • We evaluated the antihypertensive efficacy of "once-a-day" minoxidil, given in conjunction with a diuretic and sympatholytic, and the effect of this simple regimen on patient compliance [7].
  • Most cases are associated with malignant tumors or non-malignant condition such as porphyria cutanea tarda, AIDS, anorexia nervosa, thyrotoxicosis, or secondary to topical or systemic drugs (e.g. cyclosporine, phenytoin, diazoxide, minoxidil) [8].

High impact information on Rogaine


Chemical compound and disease context of Rogaine


Biological context of Rogaine


Anatomical context of Rogaine


Associations of Rogaine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Rogaine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rogaine

  • We treated eight severely hypertensive, long-term hemodialysis patients who failed to respond to ultrafiltration or conventional medication with minoxidil rather than with bilateral nephrectomy [2].
  • Despite the possibility of adverse reactions, minoxidil is indicated in patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with conventional therapy, in persons with major adverse reactions to other drugs, and in patients who are candidates for bilateral nephrectomy for control of hypertension [35].
  • Concomitant with the initiation of minoxidil treatment, ECG changes consisting of flattening or inversion of the T waves, ranging from slight to very marked, were observed in 90% of the patients [36].
  • Hair growth effects of oral administration of finasteride, a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, alone and in combination with topical minoxidil in the balding stumptail macaque [37].
  • Thirteen patients whose hypertension had been resistant to conventional drug therapy, had minoxidil added to their regimen in doses from 5 to 60 mg/day [38].


  1. Reversal of baldness in patient receiving minoxidil for hypertension. Zappacosta, A.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Minoxidil treatment of malignant hypertension. Recovery of renal function. Luft, F.C., Bloch, R., Szwed, J.J., Grim, C.M., Grim, C.E. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered renin release and propranolol potentiation of vasodilatory drug hypotension. Pettinger, W.A., Keeton, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Minoxidil for male-pattern baldness. Mitchell, A.D., De Villez, R. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Radomski, S.B., Herschorn, S., Rangaswamy, S. J. Urol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Benzylamine-related compounds stimulate rat vas deferens neurotransmission and potentiate memory in the mouse acting as potassium channel blockers. Banchelli, G., Raimondi, L., Ghelardini, C., Pirisino, R., Bertini, V., De Munno, A., Lucchesini, F. Pharmacol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The management of severe hypertension with minoxidil in a once-a-day treatment regimen. Nicholson, G.D., Fraser, H.S., Hassell, T.A., Bayley, A. Journal of clinical hypertension. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Roh, M.R., Chung, H.J., Cho, Y.H., Chung, K.Y. J. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-term treatment of refractory hypertensive patients with minoxidil. Mitchell, H.C., Pettinger, W.A. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Pericardial effusions associated with minoxidil. Bennett, W.M. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Minoxidil in breast milk. Valdivieso, A., Valdés, G., Spiro, T.E., Westerman, R.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Thrombocytopenia and minoxidil. Peitzman, S.J., Martin, C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis and management. Gifford, R.W., Tarazi, R.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of the elderly hypertensive patient. Chobanian, A.V. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of captopril and minoxidil on left ventricular hypertrophy in resistant hypertensive patients: a 6 month double-blind comparison. Julien, J., Dufloux, M.A., Prasquier, R., Chatellier, G., Menard, D., Plouin, P.F., Menard, J., Corvol, P. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Minoxidil, nadolol, and a diuretic. Once-a-day therapy for resistant hypertension. Spitalewitz, S., Porush, J.G., Reiser, I.W. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Felodipine as a replacement for minoxidil in the treatment of severe hypertension. Wathen, C.G., MacLeod, D., Tucker, L., Muir, A.L. Eur. Heart J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Severe hypertension. Treatment with minoxidil. Mehta, P.K., Mamdani, B., Shansky, R.M., Mahurkar, S.D., Dunea, G. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of minoxidil on hemodynamics in patients with congestive heart failure. Franciosa, J.A., Cohn, J.N. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. The renin-angiotensin system and volume overload-induced changes in cardiac collagen and elastin. Ruzicka, M., Keeley, F.W., Leenen, F.H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of minoxidil on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics in hypertensive man. Klotman, P.E., Grim, C.E., Weinberger, M.H., Judson, W.E. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Suppression of fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity by minoxidil. Murad, S., Pinnell, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of arterial vasodilators on cardiac hypertrophy and sympathetic activity in rats. Tsoporis, J., Leenen, F.H. Hypertension (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequence analysis and expression of the cDNA for the phenol-sulfating form of human liver phenol sulfotransferase. Wilborn, T.W., Comer, K.A., Dooley, T.P., Reardon, I.M., Heinrikson, R.L., Falany, C.N. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Minoxidil sulfate is the active metabolite that stimulates hair follicles. Buhl, A.E., Waldon, D.J., Baker, C.A., Johnson, G.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of minoxidil on cultured keratinocytes. Baden, H.P., Kubilus, J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Combination vasodilator therapy for severe chronic congestive heart failure. Chatterjee, K., Drew, D., Parmley, W.W., Klausner, S.C., Polansky, J., Zacherle, B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. cAMP-mediated vascular protection in an orthotopic rat lung transplant model. Insights into the mechanism of action of prostaglandin E1 to improve lung preservation. Naka, Y., Roy, D.K., Liao, H., Chowdhury, N.C., Michler, R.E., Oz, M.C., Pinsky, D.J. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Coadministration of glyburide and minoxidil, drugs with opposing effects on potassium channels. Stein, C.M., Brown, N., Carlson, M.G., Campbell, P., Wood, A.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Efficacy of captopril in relieving congestive heart failure developing during management of hypertension. Case report. McNay, J.L., Dole, W.P. Hypertension (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Human skin and platelet minoxidil sulfotransferase activities: biochemical properties, correlations and contribution of thermolabile phenol sulfotransferase. Kudlacek, P.E., Anderson, R.J., Liebentritt, D.K., Johnson, G.A., Huerter, C.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Sulfation of minoxidil by multiple human cytosolic sulfotransferases. Anderson, R.J., Kudlacek, P.E., Clemens, D.L. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating effect. Michelet, J.F., Commo, S., Billoni, N., Mahé, Y.F., Bernard, B.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of recombinant human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase with minoxidil as the substrate. Kudlacek, P.E., Clemens, D.L., Halgard, C.M., Anderson, R.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Minoxidil. Linas, S.L., Nies, A.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. ECG changes during long-term minoxidil therapy for severe hypertension. Hall, D., Charocopos, F., Froer, K.L., Rudolph, W. Arch. Intern. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Hair growth effects of oral administration of finasteride, a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, alone and in combination with topical minoxidil in the balding stumptail macaque. Diani, A.R., Mulholland, M.J., Shull, K.L., Kubicek, M.F., Johnson, G.A., Schostarez, H.J., Brunden, M.N., Buhl, A.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Clinical and haemodynamic effects of minoxidil in refractory hypertension. Zacest, R., Frewin, D.B., Robinson, M.A., Wilson, L.L., Lawrence, J.R., Clarkson, A.R., Jackson, B. Drugs (1976) [Pubmed]
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