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MeSH Review

Mice, Inbred mdx

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Disease relevance of Mice, Inbred mdx

  • Combinatorial blockade of calcineurin and CD28 signaling facilitates primary and secondary therapeutic gene transfer by adenovirus vectors in dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscles [1].
  • Muscles affected by muscular dystrophy undergo severe muscle damage; therefore, the hypothesis was tested that muscles of dystrophic (mdx) mice contain elevated levels of albumin [2].
  • Genetically normal (C57BL/10) and dystrophic (mdx) mice underwent a 15 week endurance swimming programme (2 hours per day, 5 days per week) where animals were weighted (5% body weight) during most sessions [3].

Psychiatry related information on Mice, Inbred mdx


High impact information on Mice, Inbred mdx


Chemical compound and disease context of Mice, Inbred mdx


Biological context of Mice, Inbred mdx


Anatomical context of Mice, Inbred mdx


Associations of Mice, Inbred mdx with chemical compounds


Gene context of Mice, Inbred mdx

  • Extensive but coordinated reorganization of the membrane skeleton in myofibers of dystrophic (mdx) mice [26].
  • To test this hypothesis in vivo, we bred a double mutant mouse that combines two genetic defects: the dystrophin-deficiency of the MDX mouse and the Cl- channel myotonia of the arrested development of righting response (ADR) mouse [21].
  • Our results suggest that histopathologies associated with Mdx mice did not diminish gross temporalis structure or function, whilst the force-frequency changes associated with Mstn(-/-) mice were reflected in an elevation of type IIx/b fibres [27].
  • A developmental change in the content of parvalbumin in normal and dystrophic mouse (mdx) muscle [28].
  • Mdx mice may be tolerant due to the presence of rare 'revertant' dystrophin-positive fibres in their skeletal muscles [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mice, Inbred mdx


  1. Combinatorial blockade of calcineurin and CD28 signaling facilitates primary and secondary therapeutic gene transfer by adenovirus vectors in dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscles. Guibinga, G.H., Lochmuller, H., Massie, B., Nalbantoglu, J., Karpati, G., Petrof, B.J. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Elevated levels of albumin in soleus and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice. Dupont-Versteegden, E.E., Kitten, A.M., Katz, M.S., McCarter, R.J. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The effects of endurance exercise on dystrophic mdx mice. I. Contractile and histochemical properties of intact muscles. Hayes, A., Lynch, G.S., Williams, D.A. Proc. Biol. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Administration of chinese herbal medicines facilitates the locomotor activity in dystrophin-deficient mice. Chen, S.S., Wang, D.C., Chen, T.J., Yang, S.L. Am. J. Chin. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of truncated utrophin leads to major functional improvements in dystrophin-deficient muscles of mice. Deconinck, N., Tinsley, J., De Backer, F., Fisher, R., Kahn, D., Phelps, S., Davies, K., Gillis, J.M. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Fibroblast growth factor in the extracellular matrix of dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscle. DiMario, J., Buffinger, N., Yamada, S., Strohman, R.C. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased calcium influx is responsible for the sustained mechanical tone in colon from dystrophic (mdx) mice. Mulè, F., Serio, R. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Loss of myostatin attenuates severity of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Wagner, K.R., McPherron, A.C., Winik, N., Lee, S.J. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Colocalization of bFGF and the myogenic regulatory gene myogenin in dystrophic mdx muscle precursors and young myotubes in vivo. Garrett, K.L., Anderson, J.E. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Beneficial versus adverse effects of long-term use of clenbuterol in mdx mice. Dupont-Versteegden, E.E., Katz, M.S., McCarter, R.J. Muscle Nerve (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Dissection of temporal gene expression signatures of affected and spared muscle groups in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice. Porter, J.D., Merriam, A.P., Leahy, P., Gong, B., Khanna, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Dystrophin distribution in heterozygote MDX mice. Watkins, S.C., Hoffman, E.P., Slayter, H.S., Kunkel, L.M. Muscle Nerve (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Serum CK, calcium, magnesium, and oxidative phosphorylation in mdx mouse muscular dystrophy. Glesby, M.J., Rosenmann, E., Nylen, E.G., Wrogemann, K. Muscle Nerve (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. The potential for gene therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other genetic muscle diseases. Karpati, G., Acsadi, G. Muscle Nerve (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Components of energy expenditure in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Mokhtarian, A., Decrouy, A., Chinet, A., Even, P.C. Pflugers Arch. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Involvement of TRPC in the abnormal calcium influx observed in dystrophic (mdx) mouse skeletal muscle fibers. Vandebrouck, C., Martin, D., Colson-Van Schoor, M., Debaix, H., Gailly, P. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Laminin-alpha2 but not -alpha1-mediated adhesion of human (Duchenne) and murine (mdx) dystrophic myotubes is seriously defective. Angoli, D., Corona, P., Baresi, R., Mora, M., Wanke, E. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Stable integration of an mdx skeletal muscle cell line into dystrophic (mdx) skeletal muscle: evidence for stem cell status. Smith, J., Schofield, P.N. Cell Growth Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Global/temporal gene expression in diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice. Rouger, K., Le Cunff, M., Steenman, M., Potier, M.C., Gibelin, N., Dechesne, C.A., Leger, J.J. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Altered electrical activity in colonic smooth muscle cells from dystrophic (mdx) mice. Serio, R., Bonvissuto, F., Mulè, F. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Myotonic ADR-MDX mutant mice show less severe muscular dystrophy than MDX mice. Krämer, R., Lochmüller, H., Abicht, A., Rüdel, R., Brinkmeier, H. Neuromuscul. Disord. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Long-term clenbuterol administration alters the isometric contractile properties of skeletal muscle from normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Hayes, A., Williams, D.A. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Oxyradical damage and mitochondrial enzyme activities in the mdx mouse. Hauser, E., Höger, H., Bittner, R., Widhalm, K., Herkner, K., Lubec, G. Neuropediatrics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Prostaglandin metabolism in dystrophin-deficient MDX mouse muscle. McArdle, A., Foxley, A., Edwards, R.H., Jackson, M.J. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Strength and endurance in the therapeutic evaluation of prednisolone-treated MDX mice. Hudecki, M.S., Pollina, C.M., Granchelli, J.A., Daly, M.K., Byrnes, T., Wang, J.C., Hsiao, J.C. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Extensive but coordinated reorganization of the membrane skeleton in myofibers of dystrophic (mdx) mice. Williams, M.W., Bloch, R.J. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Alterations of temporalis muscle contractile force and histological content from the myostatin and Mdx deficient mouse. Byron, C.D., Hamrick, M.W., Wingard, C.J. Arch. Oral Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. A developmental change in the content of parvalbumin in normal and dystrophic mouse (mdx) muscle. Sano, M., Yokota, T., Endo, T., Tsukagoshi, H. J. Neurol. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Immune responses to dystropin: implications for gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ferrer, A., Wells, K.E., Wells, D.J. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Monoclonal antibodies against defined regions of the muscular dystrophy protein, dystrophin. Nguyen thi Man, n.u.l.l., Cartwright, A.J., Morris, G.E., Love, D.R., Bloomfield, J.F., Davies, K.E. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
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