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Chemical Compound Review

Planipart     1-(4-amino-3,5-dichloro- phenyl)-2-(tert...

Synonyms: Monores, clenbuterol, Clenbuterolum, Contraspasmin, dl-Clenbuterol, ...
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Disease relevance of Planipart

  • Food poisoning following consumption of clenbuterol-treated veal in Italy [1].
  • The results showed that the increase in body weight did not differ significantly between the clenbuterol-treated and control groups (P > .5) [2].
  • Clenbuterol induces hypertrophy of the latissimus dorsi muscle and heart in the rat with molecular and phenotypic changes [2].
  • RNA analyses indicate that ventricles of clenbuterol-treated rats express elevated levels of mRNA to atrial natriuretic factor without a concomitant increase in skeletal alpha-actin and beta-myosin heavy chain, consistent with a "physiological" form of cardiac hypertrophy [2].
  • In C6-2B glioma cells, whose NGF expression is induced by BAR agonists, (i) CLE increased C/EBPdelta-binding activity, (ii) NGF mRNA levels were increased by overexpressing C/EBPdelta, and (iii) C/EBPdelta increased the activity of an NGF promoter-reporter construct [3].

Psychiatry related information on Planipart


High impact information on Planipart


Chemical compound and disease context of Planipart


Biological context of Planipart


Anatomical context of Planipart


Associations of Planipart with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Planipart

  • These data show that muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol is associated with a local increase in muscle IGF-I content [27].
  • We report herein the effects of the beta-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol on desipramine (DMI)-induced growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol secretion in healthy male subjects [28].
  • DMI alone caused GH stimulation (mean maximum = 15.7 +/- 3.4 ng/ml), which was significantly lower after combined administration of DMI and clenbuterol (mean maximum = 7.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml) (p less than or equal to 0.01) [28].
  • That for IGFBP3 only exhibited a clenbuterol-induced decrease and a strong negative correlation with the weight of masseter muscle [29].
  • RESULTS: The mRNA expression levels for IGF-I and II, IGFR1 and 2, and IGFBP4 and 6 showed clenbuterol-induced elevations and positive correlations with the weight of masseter muscle [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Planipart


  1. Food poisoning following consumption of clenbuterol-treated veal in Italy. Brambilla, G., Loizzo, A., Fontana, L., Strozzi, M., Guarino, A., Soprano, V. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Clenbuterol induces hypertrophy of the latissimus dorsi muscle and heart in the rat with molecular and phenotypic changes. Petrou, M., Wynne, D.G., Boheler, K.R., Yacoub, M.H. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. beta-adrenergic receptor-induced activation of nerve growth factor gene transcription in rat cerebral cortex involves CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta. Colangelo, A.M., Johnson, P.F., Mocchetti, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative effects of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on intracranial self-stimulation, Sidman avoidance, and motor activity in rats. Liebman, J.M., Hall, N.R., Prowse, J., Gerhardt, S., Noreika, L., Fenton, H.M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Down-regulation of beta-adrenoceptors in rat cortex by repeated administration of desipramine, electroconvulsive shock and clenbuterol requires 5-HT neurones but not 5-HT. Nimgaonkar, V.L., Goodwin, G.M., Davies, C.L., Green, A.R. Neuropharmacology (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Relationship between food intake and metabolic rate in rats treated with beta-adrenoceptor agonists. Yamashita, J., Onai, T., York, D.A., Bray, G.A. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol, on muscle atrophy due to food deprivation in the rat. Choo, J.J., Horan, M.A., Little, R.A., Rothwell, N.J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Clenbuterol and salbutamol in the symptomatic treatment of patients with reversible airways obstruction. Jaffé, G., Grimshaw, J.J. Pharmatherapeutica. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Muscle protein waste in tumor-bearing rats is effectively antagonized by a beta 2-adrenergic agonist (clenbuterol). Role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Costelli, P., García-Martínez, C., Llovera, M., Carbó, N., López-Soriano, F.J., Agell, N., Tessitore, L., Baccino, F.M., Argilés, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Memory-influencing intra-basolateral amygdala drug infusions modulate expression of Arc protein in the hippocampus. McIntyre, C.K., Miyashita, T., Setlow, B., Marjon, K.D., Steward, O., Guzowski, J.F., McGaugh, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacological modulation of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy: changes in ventricular function, extracellular matrix, and gene expression. Wong, K., Boheler, K.R., Petrou, M., Yacoub, M.H. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuroprotection mediated via neurotrophic factors and induction of neurotrophic factors. Semkova, I., Krieglstein, J. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Autoantibodies to beta 2-adrenergic receptors with antiadrenergic activity from patients with allergic asthma. Wallukat, G., Wollenberger, A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of clenbuterol and propranolol on muscle mass. Evidence that clenbuterol stimulates muscle beta-adrenoceptors to induce hypertrophy. MacLennan, P.A., Edwards, R.H. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Antidepressant treatments: effects in rodents on dose-response curves of 5-hydroxytryptamine- and dopamine-mediated behaviours and 5-HT2 receptor number in frontal cortex. Green, A.R., Heal, D.J., Johnson, P., Laurence, B.E., Nimgaonkar, V.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Nifedipine does not impede clenbuterol-stimulated muscle hypertrophy. Murphy, R.J., Béliveau, L., Gardiner, P.F., Calderone, A. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, fenbufen, on clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of cardiac and skeletal muscle of rats. Palmer, R.M., Delday, M.I., McMillan, D.N., Noble, B.S., Bain, P., Maltin, C.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Stimulation of beta2-adrenoceptors inhibits apoptosis in rat brain after transient forebrain ischemia. Zhu, Y., Culmsee, C., Semkova, I., Krieglstein, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Different ability of clenbuterol and salbutamol to block sodium channels predicts their therapeutic use in muscle excitability disorders. Desaphy, J.F., Pierno, S., De Luca, A., Didonna, P., Camerino, D.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent lipolytic responses and characterization of beta-adrenergic binding sites on human fat cell membranes with highly selective beta 1-antagonists. Mauriège, P., De Pergola, G., Berlan, M., Lafontan, M. J. Lipid Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Involvement of beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of centrally administered isoproterenol. O'Donnell, J.M., Frith, S., Wilkins, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of c-myc and c-fos in rat skeletal muscle. Evidence for increased levels of c-myc mRNA during hypertrophy. Whitelaw, P.F., Hesketh, J.E. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased association of ribosomes with myofibrils during the skeletal-muscle hypertrophy induced either by the beta-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol or by tenotomy. Horne, Z., Hesketh, J. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor mRNA by beta-adrenergic receptor activation and adrenal steroids in rat central nervous system. Follesa, P., Mocchetti, I. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Cyclodextrins as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis: a comparative study for the enantiomeric separation of some beta-agonists. Aboul-Enein, H.Y., Efstatiade, M.D., Baiulescu, G.E. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of clenbuterol on insulin resistance in conscious obese Zucker rats. Pan, S.J., Hancock, J., Ding, Z., Fogt, D., Lee, M., Ivy, J.L. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of IGF-I and IGFBPs in the changes of mass and phenotype induced in rat soleus muscle by clenbuterol. Awede, B.L., Thissen, J.P., Lebacq, J. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of clenbuterol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on desipramine induced growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol stimulation. Laakmann, G., Munz, T., Hinz, A., Voderholzer, U. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. The expressions of insulin-like growth factors, their receptors, and binding proteins are related to the mechanism regulating masseter muscle mass in the rat. Matsumoto, T., Akutsu, S., Wakana, N., Morito, M., Shimada, A., Yamane, A. Arch. Oral Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Determination of clenbuterol in bovine liver by combining matrix solid-phase dispersion and molecular imprinted solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry. Crescenzi, C., Bayoudh, S., Cormack, P.A., Klein, T., Ensing, K. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Clenbuterol and beta-adrenergic drugs detected in hair of treated animals by ELISA. Polettini, A., Segura, J., Gonzalez, G., de la Torre, X., Montagna, M. Clin. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Detection of the anabolic beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol in human scalp hair by HPLC/EIA. Gleixner, A., Sauerwein, H., Meyer, H.H. Clin. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Mechanistic study on the opposite migration order of clenbuterol enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis with beta-cyclodextrin and single-isomer heptakis(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin. Chankvetadze, B., Lomsadze, K., Bergenthal, D., Breitkreutz, J., Bergander, K., Blaschke, G. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Transforming growth factor betas are upregulated in the rat masseter muscle hypertrophied by clenbuterol, a beta2 adrenergic agonist. Akutsu, S., Shimada, A., Yamane, A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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