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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Flatulence


Psychiatry related information on Flatulence

  • Dizziness (p = 0.05), dry mouth (p = 0.05), somnolence, nausea, flatulence, and decreased libido occurred at a higher frequency among patients receiving gabapentin than among those receiving placebo [6].

High impact information on Flatulence

  • Increased stool frequency, decreased stool consistency, and more frequent flatulence, borborygmi, and distention were found with the lactose diet, although classic lactose intolerance (plasma glucose rise of less than 26 mg/dl) was indicated in only two patients [7].
  • The most frequent side-effects to acarbose treatment were flatulence and diarrhoea [8].
  • In contrast, the analysis revealed a higher frequency (p less than 0.01) of flatulence in patients treated with lactulose compared with those treated with lactitol [9].
  • In conclusion, this meta-analysis shows no statistical difference between therapeutic effects of lactitol and lactulose, but it does show a higher frequency of flatulence with lactulose [9].
  • Acarbose alone or in combination with tolbutamide caused significantly more gastrointestinal adverse events (mainly flatulence and soft stools or diarrhea) than tolbutamide or placebo, but these were generally well tolerated [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Flatulence

  • S-LNP subjects have underlying flatulence that is misattributed to lactose intolerance [11].
  • Ten subjects had significantly greater flatulence while taking the oligosaccharide than did five subjects taking sucrose (5 g tid) [12].
  • Bay-m-1099 did not affect postprandial plasma triglycerides and was well tolerated, the major side effect being flatulence (4/9) and mild diarrhea (4/9) [13].
  • Muscular aching, flatulence, and daily drowsiness were more common among subjects in the methadone group, while subjects in the clonidine group had more sleep disturbances and weeping [14].
  • Flatulence was significantly greater after lactulose and l-rhamnose than after d-glucose (P < 0.0001), an effect that lasted 4 wk with lactulose but only 1 wk with l-rhamnose [15].

Anatomical context of Flatulence


Gene context of Flatulence

  • Because of the small doses of SMS 201-995 used side-effects of abdominal discomfort and flatulence were mild and rapidly disappeared [17].
  • Gastrointestinal side effects (e.g., abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea) and serum transaminase elevations (e.g., aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] were more frequently reported in the acarbose-treated patients than in the placebo-treated control patients [18].
  • VAS scores for flatulence, but not other symptoms increased (P = 0.004) by 13.1 +/- 6.3 mm (mean +/- SEM) on a 100 mm scale after sorbitol alone or sorbitol with a meal (by 18.9 +/- 7.2 mm), but not after dextrose [19].
  • After the nutritional application was changed in O2, the PA group (G2) again showed a significantly better rate of flatulence, epigastric fullness, regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, and daily profile of blood glucose [20].
  • Subjective ratings of the severity of abdominal cramping, belching, flatulence, vomiting and diarrhoea were significantly decreased following ingestion of the lactase pellets and lactose (no incidence of diarrhoea) compared with after ingestion of placebo and lactose [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flatulence


  1. Evaluation of bismuth subsalicylate in relieving symptoms of indigestion. Hailey, F.J., Newsom, J.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. An overview of the clinical safety profile of atorvastatin (lipitor), a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Black, D.M., Bakker-Arkema, R.G., Nawrocki, J.W. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The clinical significance of disaccharide maldigestion. Gudmand-Høyer, E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Omeprazole. A review of its use in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Langtry, H.D., Wilde, M.I. Drugs (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical experience with pantoprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Avner, D.L. Clinical therapeutics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Treatment of social phobia with gabapentin: a placebo-controlled study. Pande, A.C., Davidson, J.R., Jefferson, J.W., Janney, C.A., Katzelnick, D.J., Weisler, R.H., Greist, J.H., Sutherland, S.M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Relative lactose intolerance. A clinical study of tube-fed patients. Walike, B.C., Walike, J.W. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Chiasson, J.L., Josse, R.G., Gomis, R., Hanefeld, M., Karasik, A., Laakso, M. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Lactitol or lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a meta-analysis. Blanc, P., Daures, J.P., Rouillon, J.M., Peray, P., Pierrugues, R., Larrey, D., Gremy, F., Michel, H. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Multicenter, placebo-controlled trial comparing acarbose (BAY g 5421) with placebo, tolbutamide, and tolbutamide-plus-acarbose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Coniff, R.F., Shapiro, J.A., Seaton, T.B., Bray, G.A. Am. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Tolerance to the daily ingestion of two cups of milk by individuals claiming lactose intolerance. Suarez, F.L., Savaiano, D., Arbisi, P., Levitt, M.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Gaseous response to ingestion of a poorly absorbed fructo-oligosaccharide sweetener. Stone-Dorshow, T., Levitt, M.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. A new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (Bay-m-1099) reduces insulin requirements with meals in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kennedy, F.P., Gerich, J.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of clonidine and of methadone in the rapid detoxification of patients dependent on heroin. Camí, J., de Torres, S., San, L., Solé, A., Guerra, D., Ugena, B. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. L-Rhamnose increases serum propionate after long-term supplementation, but lactulose does not raise serum acetate. Vogt, J.A., Ishii-Schrade, K.B., Pencharz, P.B., Wolever, T.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Cellular immune response in giardiasis. El-Shazly, A.M., El-Bendary, M., Saker, T., Rifaat, M.M., Saleh, W.A., El Nemr, H.I. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of 2-hourly versus 8-hourly subcutaneous injections of a somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) in the treatment of acromegaly. Wang, C., Lam, K.S., Arceo, E., Chan, F.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin and postprandial hyperglycemia by acarbose in patients with NIDDM. A placebo-controlled dose-comparison study. Coniff, R.F., Shapiro, J.A., Robbins, D., Kleinfield, R., Seaton, T.B., Beisswenger, P., McGill, J.B. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of an osmotically active agent on colonic transit. Skoog, S.M., Bharucha, A.E., Camilleri, M., Burton, D.D., Zinsmeister, A.R. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Pump-assisted versus gravity-controlled enteral nutrition in long-term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy patients: a prospective controlled trial. Shang, E., Geiger, N., Sturm, J.W., Post, S. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Treatment of lactose intolerance with exogenous beta-D-galactosidase in pellet form. Xenos, K., Kyroudis, S., Anagnostidis, A., Papastathopoulos, P. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative efficacy and safety of bumetanide and furosemide in long-term treatment of edema due to congestive heart failure. Dixon, D.W., Barwolf-Gohlke, C., Gunnar, R.M. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance in Uruguayan population by breath hydrogen test (H2). Maggi, R., Sayagues, B., Fernandez, A., Romero, B., Barusso, P., Hernandez, C., Magariños, M., Mendez, G., Dilascio, C., Martell, M. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of acebutolol and hydrochlorothiazide in essential hypertension. Lewis, J.E. Am. Heart J. (1985) [Pubmed]
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