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MeSH Review

Hepatitis, Autoimmune

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Disease relevance of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


High impact information on Hepatitis, Autoimmune

  • Azathioprine for long-term maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis [6].
  • In most patients with autoimmune hepatitis, remission can be maintained with prednisolone, usually in combination with azathioprine, but the majority of patients have a relapse when treatment is stopped and therefore require long-term therapy [6].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 (AIH-2), a severe juvenile liver disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, is characterized by liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targeting cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and is associated to HLA DRB1*07 [7].
  • Progress in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis still requires knowledge of a disease-specific autoantigen(s) involved in T-cell reactivity, although such knowledge in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, in which the known autoantigen is cytochrome P4502D6, has not yet been integrated into a clearly defined scheme of pathogenesis [8].
  • To identify diagnostic autoantibodies for APECED hepatitis, sera from 64 patients with APECED were screened for autoantibodies established in the diagnosis of idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis, and for autoantibodies against 10 cytochrome P450s [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


Biological context of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


Anatomical context of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


Gene context of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hepatitis, Autoimmune


  1. RNA interference targeting Fas protects mice from fulminant hepatitis. Song, E., Lee, S.K., Wang, J., Ince, N., Ouyang, N., Min, J., Chen, J., Shankar, P., Lieberman, J. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular mimicry of human cytochrome P450 by hepatitis C virus at the level of cytotoxic T cell recognition. Kammer, A.R., van der Burg, S.H., Grabscheid, B., Hunziker, I.P., Kwappenberg, K.M., Reichen, J., Melief, C.J., Cerny, A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibodies to soluble liver antigen, P450IID6, and mitochondrial complexes in chronic hepatitis. Czaja, A.J., Carpenter, H.A., Manns, M.P. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Experimental autoimmune hepatitis in mice after immunization with syngeneic liver proteins together with the polysaccharide of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Kuriki, J., Murakami, H., Kakumu, S., Sakamoto, N., Yokochi, T., Nakashima, I., Kato, N. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Sex mismatch as a risk factor for chronic rejection of liver allografts. Candinas, D., Gunson, B.K., Nightingale, P., Hubscher, S., McMaster, P., Neuberger, J.M. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Azathioprine for long-term maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis. Johnson, P.J., McFarlane, I.G., Williams, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Polyclonal T-cell responses to cytochrome P450IID6 are associated with disease activity in autoimmune hepatitis type 2. Ma, Y., Bogdanos, D.P., Hussain, M.J., Underhill, J., Bansal, S., Longhi, M.S., Cheeseman, P., Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. The lymphoid liver: considerations on pathways to autoimmune injury. Kita, H., Mackay, I.R., Van De Water, J., Gershwin, M.E. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatic autoantigens in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. Obermayer-Straub, P., Perheentupa, J., Braun, S., Kayser, A., Barut, A., Loges, S., Harms, A., Dalekos, G., Strassburg, C.P., Manns, M.P. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The successful treatment of autoimmune hepatitis with 6-mercaptopurine after failure with azathioprine. Pratt, D.S., Flavin, D.P., Kaplan, M.M. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Autoimmune cholangiopathy: the result of consecutive primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis? Colombato, L.A., Alvarez, F., Côté, J., Huet, P.M. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Members of the glutathione S-transferase gene family are antigens in autoimmune hepatitis. Wesierska-Gadek, J., Grimm, R., Hitchman, E., Penner, E. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Early-onset autoimmune hepatitis is associated with a C4A gene deletion. Scully, L.J., Toze, C., Sengar, D.P., Goldstein, R. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Anti-GOR and hepatitis C virus in autoimmune liver diseases. Michel, G., Ritter, A., Gerken, G., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H., Decker, R., Manns, M.P. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Allelic sequence variation in the HLA class II genes and proteins in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. Doherty, D.G., Donaldson, P.T., Underhill, J.A., Farrant, J.M., Duthie, A., Mieli-Vergani, G., McFarlane, I.G., Johnson, P.J., Eddleston, A.L., Mowat, A.P. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterogeneity of liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 in autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C virus related liver disease. Muratori, L., Lenzi, M., Ma, Y., Cataleta, M., Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D., Bianchi, F.B. Gut (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis. Czaja, A.J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Disease- and cell-specific expression of GP73 in human liver disease. Iftikhar, R., Kladney, R.D., Havlioglu, N., Schmitt-Gräff, A., Gusmirovic, I., Solomon, H., Luxon, B.A., Bacon, B.R., Fimmel, C.J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Association of autoimmune hepatitis with HLA-Bw54 and DR4 in Japanese patients. Seki, T., Kiyosawa, K., Inoko, H., Ota, M. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. A bioinformatical approach suggests the function of the autoimmune hepatitis target antigen soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas. Kernebeck, T., Lohse, A.W., Grötzinger, J. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Agarwal, K., Czaja, A.J., Jones, D.E., Donaldson, P.T. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Anti-neutrophil antibodies in chronic hepatitis and the effect of alpha-interferon therapy. Warny, M., Brenard, R., Cornu, C., Tomasi, J.P., Geubel, A.P. J. Hepatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. An NO derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid protects against Fas-mediated liver injury by inhibiting caspase activity. Fiorucci, S., Mencarelli, A., Palazzetti, B., Del Soldato, P., Morelli, A., Ignarro, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. LKM1 autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C infection: a case of molecular mimicry? Marceau, G., Lapierre, P., Béland, K., Soudeyns, H., Alvarez, F. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Autoimmune regulator AIRE: evidence for genetic differences between autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis as part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Vogel, A., Liermann, H., Harms, A., Strassburg, C.P., Manns, M.P., Obermayer-Straub, P. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. HLA-C genes and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Strettell, M.D., Thomson, L.J., Donaldson, P.T., Bunce, M., O'Neill, C.M., Williams, R. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. MHC class II sequences of susceptibility and protection in Mexicans with autoimmune hepatitis. Vázquez-García, M.N., Aláez, C., Olivo, A., Debaz, H., Pérez-Luque, E., Burguete, A., Cano, S., de la Rosa, G., Bautista, N., Hernández, A., Bandera, J., Torres, L.F., Kershenobich, D., Alvarez, F., Gorodezky, C. J. Hepatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Development of autoimmune hepatitis following liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis. Jones, D.E., James, O.F., Portmann, B., Burt, A.D., Williams, R., Hudson, M. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Use of a designer triple expression hybrid clone for three different lipoyl domain for the detection of antimitochondrial autoantibodies. Moteki, S., Leung, P.S., Coppel, R.L., Dickson, E.R., Kaplan, M.M., Munoz, S., Gershwin, M.E. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytokine patterns and cytotoxic mediators in primary biliary cirrhosis. Martinez, O.M., Villanueva, J.C., Gershwin, M.E., Krams, S.M. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The immunologic diagnosis of chronic active "autoimmune" hepatitis: distinction from systemic lupus erythematosus. Gurian, L.E., Rogoff, T.M., Ware, A.J., Jordan, R.E., Combes, B., Gilliam, J.N. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Establishment of standardised SLA/LP immunoassays: specificity for autoimmune hepatitis, worldwide occurrence, and clinical characteristics. Baeres, M., Herkel, J., Czaja, A.J., Wies, I., Kanzler, S., Cancado, E.L., Porta, G., Nishioka, M., Simon, T., Daehnrich, C., Schlumberger, W., Galle, P.R., Lohse, A.W. Gut (2002) [Pubmed]
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