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MeSH Review

Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

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Disease relevance of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous


Psychiatry related information on Insemination, Artificial, Homologous


High impact information on Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

  • Treatment of AIH consists of L-T(4) replacement while continuing amiodarone therapy; alternatively, if feasible, amiodarone can be discontinued, especially in the absence of thyroid abnormalities, and the natural course toward euthyroidism can be accelerated by a short course of potassium perchlorate treatment [1].
  • Reactive proteins were detected by immunoblotting with sera from 118 individuals (UC, 25; PSC, 28; AIH, 35; disease and normal controls, 30) [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione S-transferase subunit proteins represent the major autoantigen in anti-SLA-positive AIH [8].
  • RESULTS: The highest frequency (76%) of anti-human ASGPR was found in AIH patients (11/24 U.S.; 21/25 European; 28/30 Japanese), particularly in those with active disease before treatment (53/62, 85%), and decreased in titer with response to immunosuppressive therapy [2].
  • The level of FoxP3-expressing Tregs was markedly lower in affected PBC portal tracts compared with CHC and AIH (P < .001) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous


Biological context of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous


Anatomical context of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

  • Autoantibodies to soluble liver antigen and liver pancreas (SLA/LP) have been described as specific markers for Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH), occurring in about 20% of patients with AIH [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes [21].
  • Impaired proliferative or functional capacity of liver derived T cells was not observed in either PBC or AIH patients [22].
  • We studied 32 sera from patients with AIH type-I and prepared extracts of human neutrophils to identify the target antigen(s) [23].
  • Sixteen of 18 patients with AIH and 13 of 20 with PBC had no or minimal bile duct injury [24].

Associations of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous with chemical compounds

  • Both cases had had changes in their immunosuppressive therapy before the onset of AIH episodes, and both rapidly responded to reinstitution of steroid therapy [25].
  • Their biochemical, immunologic, and histologic responses to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) versus placebo were compared with those without AIH features [26].
  • The anti-UGT-positive sera from AIH type 2 patients revealed the strongest immunoreactivity against UGT1A1, the main UGT-isoform involved in the bilirubin glucuronidation [27].
  • When a decreased thyrotropin (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone occurred (in the absence of AIT), continuation of amiodarone medication was associated with a normalization of the TSH response in eight of 11 cases (73%); in contrast, an increased TSH response (in the absence of AIH) returned to normal in one of four cases (25%) [28].
  • CONCLUSIONS: TPMT phenotyping or genotyping may be advisable before institution of azathioprine therapy in AIH but neither approach invariably predicts response to the drug [16].

Gene context of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

  • To summarize, we show the subtype preference of antibodies against UGT1A1 in a subgroup of AIH type 2 patients [27].
  • Few investigators, however, have examined the HLA C locus in AIH, which warrants detailed study in view of its recently described roles in immunoregulation [29].
  • In contrast, the serum from the HCV-patient reacted predominately with UGT1A6, and moreover, the immunoreactivity pattern was different from that of the AIH group [27].
  • In contrast, reactivity to prokaryotically expressed CYP2D6 protein and synthetic peptides is significantly lower in HCV infection than in AIH [30].
  • In AIH, Treg FOXP3 expression is lower than in normal subjects [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Insemination, Artificial, Homologous

  • Of 17 CYP2D6(193-212)-reactive sera, 11 (7 AIH and 4 HCV) reacted by ELISA with the HCV homologue, 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) with the CMV homologue, and 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) showed double reactivity [32].
  • Analysis showed a reduced frequency of the variant t allele in the IL-4 promoter polymorphism (position 590) in patients with GD and in the entire patient group (GD and AIH) compared with the control group [corrected P (Pc) = 0.00004 and Pc < 0.00001 for GD and all patients, respectively] [33].
  • On the other hand, HLA typing of patients with AIH type 2 disclosed a significant increase in the DRB1*07 (68% vs 20% of controls, p(c) < 0.00014), DRB4 (79% vs 43% of controls, p(c) = 0.004), and DQB1*02 (86% vs 42%, p = 0.00002) alleles [34].
  • To clarify this issue, we have studied by phage plaque assay and Western blot the reactivity to recombinant CYP2D6, isolated from a human liver cDNA library, in 55 patients with LKM-1, 18 (14 females, median age 12 years) anti-HCV-negative, with classical AIH, and 37 (27 females, median age 52 years) anti-HCV-positive [35].
  • A total of 345 couples with non-tubal infertility on an IVF waiting list underwent 702 treatment cycles involving daily intrauterine inseminations of husband's washed spermatozoa (AIH) over 3 days of the periovulatory period, following ovarian stimulation [36].


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  16. Thiopurine methyltransferase phenotype and genotype in relation to azathioprine therapy in autoimmune hepatitis. Langley, P.G., Underhill, J., Tredger, J.M., Norris, S., McFarlane, I.G. J. Hepatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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