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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Echinacea


High impact information on Echinacea


Biological context of Echinacea


Anatomical context of Echinacea


Associations of Echinacea with chemical compounds

  • Echinacea dosing significantly reduced the oral clearance of caffeine, from 6.6 +/- 3.8 L/h to 4.9 +/- 2.3 L/h (P =.049; 90% CI, 58%-96%) [8].
  • Caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and oral and intravenous midazolam were administered before and after a short course of echinacea (400 mg 4 times a day for 8 days) to determine in vivo CYP activities [8].
  • In contrast, Echinacea extracts chemically standardized to phenolic acid or echinacoside content and fresh pressed juice preparations were found to be inactive as immunostimulatory agents but did display, to varying degrees, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [12].
  • Preparative separation of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography [13].
  • Analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea simulata and E. paradoxa roots [14].

Gene context of Echinacea

  • Echinacea selectively modulates the catalytic activity of CYP3A at hepatic and intestinal sites [8].
  • The oral clearance of dextromethorphan in 11 CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers was not affected by echinacea dosing (1289 +/- 414 L/h compared with 1281 +/- 483 L/h; P =.732; 90% CI, 89%-108%) [8].
  • Caution should be used when echinacea is coadministered with drugs dependent on CYP3A or CYP1A2 for their elimination [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Echinacea (E purpurea root) reduced the oral clearance of substrates of CYP1A2 but not the oral clearance of substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 [8].
  • Echinacea induced lower levels of IL-6 in comparison to the other cytokines measured [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Echinacea


  1. Antiviral activity of characterized extracts from echinacea spp. (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) against herpes simplex virus (HSV-I). Binns, S.E., Hudson, J., Merali, S., Arnason, J.T. Planta Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of complementary medicine and dietary supplements among U.S. adolescents. Wilson, K.M., Klein, J.D., Sesselberg, T.S., Yussman, S.M., Markow, D.B., Green, A.E., West, J.C., Gray, N.J. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis. Mullins, R.J. Med. J. Aust. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma. Jaber, R. Prim. Care (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Polysaccharides isolated from Echinacea purpurea herba cell cultures to counteract undesired effects of chemotherapy--a pilot study. Melchart, D., Clemm, C., Weber, B., Draczynski, T., Worku, F., Linde, K., Weidenhammer, W., Wagner, H., Saller, R. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. Luettig, B., Steinmüller, C., Gifford, G.E., Wagner, H., Lohmann-Matthes, M.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Miller, L.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Gorski, J.C., Huang, S.M., Pinto, A., Hamman, M.A., Hilligoss, J.K., Zaheer, N.A., Desai, M., Miller, M., Hall, S.D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Deleterious effects of Echinacea purpurea and melatonin on myeloid cells in mouse spleen and bone marrow. Currier, N.L., Sicotte, M., Miller, S.C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated degradation of Echinacea alkylamides in human liver microsomes. Matthias, A., Gillam, E.M., Penman, K.G., Matovic, N.J., Bone, K.M., De Voss, J.J., Lehmann, R.P. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Echinacea intake induces an immune response through altered expression of leucocyte hsp70, increased white cell counts and improved erythrocyte antioxidant defences. Agnew, L.L., Guffogg, S.P., Matthias, A., Lehmann, R.P., Bone, K.M., Watson, K. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunopharmacological activity of Echinacea preparations following simulated digestion on murine macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Rininger, J.A., Kickner, S., Chigurupati, P., McLean, A., Franck, Z. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Preparative separation of cichoric acid from Echinacea purpurea by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. Wang, X., Geng, Y., Li, F., Gao, Q., Shi, X. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea simulata and E. paradoxa roots. Bauer, R., Foster, S. Planta Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. Burger, R.A., Torres, A.R., Warren, R.P., Caldwell, V.D., Hughes, B.G. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. HPLC method validated for the simultaneous analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides in Echinacea purpurea plants and products. Mølgaard, P., Johnsen, S., Christensen, P., Cornett, C. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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