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MeSH Review

Steam Bath

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Disease relevance of Steam Bath

  • Efficacy and safety of thermal vasodilation therapy by sauna in infants with severe congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular septal defect [1].
  • In order to establish possible different reactions between normal subjects and cocaine addicts to short term exposure to heat, thermal, cardiovascular and pituitary hormonal responses to hyperthermia in sauna were measured in 8 male cocaine addicts (studied after 14 days of abstinence) and in 8 age and weight matched normal men [2].
  • Body weight, urine volume, and the urinary excretion of sodium and chloride via dehydration were decreased following sauna bathing alone [3].
  • Changes in the pharmacodynamics due to the sauna were consistent with the pharmacokinetic findings: midazolam decreased flicker recognition and induced exophoria significantly less during the early sauna period than in the control session, whereas ephedrine made the volunteers subjectively more alert at that time [4].
  • N-Nitrosoproline (NPRO) formed intragastrically after ingestion of 8 mg/kg body weight sodium nitrate and the same amount of proline was determined in the sweat of six volunteers during intensive sweating in a Finnish sauna (60-80 degrees C) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Steam Bath


High impact information on Steam Bath

  • For hot tub use, the crude RR was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.4 to 6.3); for sauna, 2.6 (95% CI, 0.7 to 10.1); for fever, 1.9 (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.1); and for electric blanket, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.6) [7].
  • Multivariate adjusted RRs for individual heat sources, after controlling for maternal age, folic acid supplements, family history of NTD, and exposure to other heat sources, were for hot tub use, 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2 to 6.5); sauna, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.4 to 7.9); fever, 1.8 (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.1); and electric blanket, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.6) [7].
  • Combined mutation of "catalytic carboxylates" in both nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of P-glycoprotein generates a conformation capable of tight binding of 8-azido-ADP (Sauna, Z. E., Müller, M., Peng, X. H., and Ambudkar, S. V. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 13989-14000) [8].
  • The %FMD after two-week sauna treatment significantly increased from the baseline value, whereas the %NTG-induced dilation did not [9].
  • Two weeks of sauna therapy significantly improved %FMD in the risk group (4.0 +/- 1.7% to 5.8 +/- 1.3%, p < 0.001) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Steam Bath

  • Plasma glucagon, adrenaline, noradrenaline, insulin and glucose concentrations were measured in 7 healthy young males during hyperthermia in a sauna bath: plasma glucagon levels increased from baseline values of 127.0 +/- 12.9 (SEM) pg X ml-1 to a maximum of 173.6 +/- 16.1 (SEM) pg X ml-1 at the 20th min of exposure [11].
  • Oxprenolol (40 mg) given 30 min before the sauna did not alter the plasma catecholamine pattern although it effectively lowered the heart rate before, during, and after the exposure to the heat stress [12].

Biological context of Steam Bath


Anatomical context of Steam Bath


Associations of Steam Bath with chemical compounds

  • In addition, the combined effects of transdermal nicotine and sauna bathing on hemodynamics, some psychomotor skills, and subjective symptoms were evaluated [13].
  • An accelerated decomposition experiment, conducted on normal suppositories of identical original composition, yielded a product refractory at steam bath temperatures and containing no ethylenediamine measurable by the USP assay [20].
  • A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment [21].
  • The subjects received single oral doses of placebo, propranolol (40 mg) or captopril (12.5 mg) in sauna and control sessions at a one-week interval [22].
  • The review of the data in the literature shows absent responses of beta endorphin and its related hormone ACTH to the thermal stress of sauna in heroin, cocaine or alcohol addicts [23].

Gene context of Steam Bath

  • [IL-1 alpha]max decreased to one-third that of the first sweat test, when second sauna sweat tests were conducted after 2 h of continuous sweating on the same day [24].
  • In an additional group of 8 young men, the dynamics of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were studied during a 30 min sauna exposure (90 degrees C) [25].
  • Before sauna, ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin levels were similar in the two groups, whereas plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly higher in cocaine addicts [2].
  • We observed a greater neuroendocrine activation in women than in men in response to heat exposure in sauna with pronounced differences in ACTH and prolactin release and partly also after a cold-pressor test [26].
  • In contrast, %NTG did not change after two weeks of sauna therapy (18.7 +/- 4.2% to 18.1 +/- 4.1%) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Steam Bath


  1. Efficacy and safety of thermal vasodilation therapy by sauna in infants with severe congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular septal defect. Sugahara, Y., Ishii, M., Muta, H., Egami, K., Akagi, T., Matsuishi, T. Am. J. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyperthermia in sauna is unable to increase the plasma levels of ACTH/cortisol, beta-endorphin and prolactin in cocaine addicts. Vescovi, P.P., Coiro, V., Volpi, R., Giannini, A., Passeri, M. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of sauna bathing and beer ingestion on plasma concentrations of purine bases. Yamamoto, T., Moriwaki, Y., Ka, T., Takahashi, S., Tsutsumi, Z., Cheng, J., Inokuchi, T., Yamamoto, A., Hada, T. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of a sauna on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam and ephedrine in healthy young women. Vanakoski, J., Strömberg, C., Seppälä, T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Studies on the excretion of endogenously formed N-nitrosoproline. I. Percutaneous excretion of N-nitrosoproline in humans. Bogovski, P.A., Rooma, M.A., Kann, J.M. IARC Sci. Publ. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Alcohol and sauna bathing: effects on cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, and serum electrolyte and cortisol concentrations. Roine, R., Luurila, O.J., Suokas, A., Heikkonen, E., Koskinen, P., Ylikahri, R., Toivonen, L., Härkönen, M., Salaspuro, M. J. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. Milunsky, A., Ulcickas, M., Rothman, K.J., Willett, W., Jick, S.S., Jick, H. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Combined mutation of catalytic glutamate residues in the two nucleotide binding domains of P-glycoprotein generates a conformation that binds ATP and ADP tightly. Tombline, G., Bartholomew, L.A., Urbatsch, I.L., Senior, A.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure. Kihara, T., Biro, S., Imamura, M., Yoshifuku, S., Takasaki, K., Ikeda, Y., Otuji, Y., Minagoe, S., Toyama, Y., Tei, C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors. Imamura, M., Biro, S., Kihara, T., Yoshifuku, S., Takasaki, K., Otsuji, Y., Minagoe, S., Toyama, Y., Tei, C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased glucagon secretion during hyperthermia in a sauna. Tatár, P., Vigas, M., Jurcovicová, J., Kvetnanský, R., Strec, V. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma catecholamines in Finnish sauna. Hussi, E., Sonck, T., Pösö, H., Remes, J., Eisalo, A., Jänne, J. Ann. Clin. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Exposure to high ambient temperature increases absorption and plasma concentrations of transdermal nicotine. Vanakoski, J., Seppälä, T., Sievi, E., Lunell, E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Children in sauna: hormonal adjustments to intensive short thermal stress. Jokinen, E., Välimäki, I., Marniemi, J., Seppänen, A., Irjala, K., Simell, O. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Sauna, shower, and ice water immersion. Physiological responses to brief exposures to heat, cool, and cold. Part III. Body temperatures. Kauppinen, K. Arctic medical research. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Repeated thermal therapy upregulates arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in Syrian golden hamsters. Ikeda, Y., Biro, S., Kamogawa, Y., Yoshifuku, S., Eto, H., Orihara, K., Kihara, T., Tei, C. Jpn. Circ. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. The doubling of prolactin levels after a dry Finnish sauna may increase body fat stores. Backon, J. International journal of obesity. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of sauna on sperm movement characteristics of normal men measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Saikhun, J., Kitiyanant, Y., Vanadurongwan, V., Pavasuthipaisit, K. Int. J. Androl. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical implications of thermal therapy in lifestyle-related diseases. Biro, S., Masuda, A., Kihara, T., Tei, C. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Decomposition of aminophylline in suppository formulations. Brower, J.F., Juenge, E.C., Page, D.P., Dow, M.L. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects. Strbák, V., Tatár, P., Angyal, R., Strec, V., Aksamitová, K., Vigas, M., Jánosová, H. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of a Finnish sauna on the pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic actions of propranolol and captopril in healthy volunteers. Vanakoski, J., Seppälä, T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Hyperthermia and endorphins. Vescovi, P.P., Coiro, V. Biomed. Pharmacother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-1 alpha in human sweat is functionally active and derived from the eccrine sweat gland. Sato, K., Sato, F. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna. Jezová, D., Kvetnanský, R., Vigas, M. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Neuroendocrine response during stress with relation to gender differences. Jezová, D., Juránková, E., Mosnárová, A., Kriska, M., Skultétyová, I. Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. The effects of sauna on tetraplegic and paraplegic subjects. Gerner, H.J., Engel, P., Gass, G.C., Gass, E.M., Hannich, T., Feldmann, G. Paraplegia. (1992) [Pubmed]
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