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Chemical Compound Review

Duranest     4-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2- methylamino...

Synonyms: Epitrate, Lyophrin, Epifrin, Vaponefrin, adrenaline, ...
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Disease relevance of adrenaline

  • The pathophysiology and genetics of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. International Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia Consortium [1].
  • Concentrations of total DA and of free + conjugated NE + E in plasma are a more sensitive measure of sympathetic activity than are levels of free catecholamines, and they may provide a clinically useful biochemical index for categorizing hypertension and following its treatment [2].
  • Adrenal medullary activity, on the other hand, increased substantially during acute exposure to moderate hypoxia (2-fold increase in urinary E excretion) and severe hypoxia (greater than 10-fold) [3].
  • Unusual presentations of lung cancer: Case 2. Adrenal insufficiency as the initial manifestation of non-small-cell lung cancer [4].
  • Furthermore, pretreatment of epidermal cells with EPI or norepinephrine in vitro suppressed the ability of these cells to present Ag for elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in previously immunized mice [5].

Psychiatry related information on adrenaline


High impact information on adrenaline

  • Neurotransmitters and hormones such as somatostatin, galanin, and adrenalin reduce insulin secretion [12].
  • Conversely, monoclonal antibodies directed against the GPIIb/IIIa complex had no effect on ristocetin-induced binding of 125I-v-WF to normal platelets, but blocked thrombin- and ADP + EPI-induced binding [13].
  • When analyzed by subgroup, the elevated E + MET group had markedly lower cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid levels than controls, whereas depressed patients with normal catecholamine levels did not [14].
  • INTERVENTIONS: Adrenal scintiscans done using 1 mCi of NP-59 intravenously, and gamma camera imaging 5 to 7 days later [15].
  • The effect of taurine on plasma catecholamines and the response of plasma E after the stimulation with glucagon was also studied in 12 borderline hypertensive and nine age-matched normotensive subjects [16].

Chemical compound and disease context of adrenaline

  • The mean basal plasma epinephrine (E) level was not significantly altered by hypopituitarism [17].
  • We found a false negative clonidine suppression test in a patient with an asymptomatic ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma who had minimally increased resting plasma NE and E values of 669 and 419 pg/ml, respectively [18].
  • 1) Adrenal adenoma formation in patients with Cushing's syndrome is accompanied by a parallel decrease in the stimulation of the release of steroid hormones in response to ACTH, cholera toxin, and forskolin [19].
  • We conclude that obesity in women is attended by suppressed plasma E responses to isometric exercise, which may explain subnormal excursions of plasma FFA and beta-hydroxybutyrate during handgrip and recovery, respectively [20].
  • Decapitation was found to be associated with a 10-fold increase in circulating NE and an 80-fold increase in circulating levels of EPI, whereas dopamine remained at undetectable levels [21].

Biological context of adrenaline

  • In the quadriplegics the average resting blood pressure was 107/59 (mean, 75) mmHg, heart rate was 65 beats/min, and plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were 0.05 and 0.005 ng/ml, respectively [22].
  • Moreover, we observed a "priming" effect of MGDF on the phosphorylation of p-42 mitogen-activated protein kinase promoted by ADP, EPI, and THR [23].
  • These results indicate that beta TC-6 cells are a glucose-responsive cell line in which insulin exocytosis is physiologically regulated by EPI and SRIF through Gi/Go-mediated mechanisms [24].
  • Luciferase reporter expression was exquisitely sensitive over a large dynamic range, was specific for the transgenic animals, and paralleled typical neuroendocrine distribution of endogenous chromogranin A. Adrenal ontogeny revealed a rise of embryonic transgene expression until embryonal day 18, with an abrupt postnatal decline [25].
  • There was a significant increase in heart rate and E concentrations during the jump itself [26].

Anatomical context of adrenaline

  • The compound inhibits irreversibly 1-epinephrine-dependent adenylate cyclase activity [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC] in the whole turkey erythrocyte as well as in the erythrocyte membranes possessing the beta-receptor [27].
  • Postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) and 1-epinephrine infusion have previously been shown by the ventriculographic technique to augment left ventricular wall motion in patients with coronary artery disease [28].
  • However, 2- to 2.5-day embryonic chicken myocardial cells, although similar to 5-day heart cells with respect to the organization of myofibrils, failed to respond to EPI either by increased rates of contraction or by elevated levels of intracellular cAMP [29].
  • With epi/ADP in the absence of RGDS, there was an immediate, marked decrease in the percentage of all leukocytes with bound platelets, simultaneous with an increase in the percentage of unbound platelet aggregates [30].
  • These catecholamines activated adenylate cyclase in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells but IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in hepatocytes [31].

Associations of adrenaline with other chemical compounds


Gene context of adrenaline


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of adrenaline

  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal gland enlargement occurring during an episode of major depression appears to be state-dependent, in that it reverts to the normal size range during remission after treatment [43].
  • E decreased rapidly, to 360 +/- 84.3 pg/ml, after myocardial and pulmonary reperfusion (stage 5) [44].
  • Plasma NE and EPI concentrations were unchanged in VMH-lesioned rats that received a single intravenous injection of leptin [45].
  • Local intradermal injection of EPI inhibited the induction of contact hypersensitivity to epicutaneously administered haptens [5].
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy abolished the increase in plasma EPI elicited by stimulation of the RVL but did not affect resting rCBF (n = 5) or the elevation in rCBF elicited by RVL stimulation (n = 5) [46].


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  12. Neurotransmitter-induced inhibition of exocytosis in insulin-secreting beta cells by activation of calcineurin. Renström, E., Ding, W.G., Bokvist, K., Rorsman, P. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Platelets have more than one binding site for von Willebrand factor. Ruggeri, Z.M., De Marco, L., Gatti, L., Bader, R., Montgomery, R.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Cerebrospinal fluid and urinary biogenic amines in depressed patients and healthy controls. Davis, J.M., Koslow, S.H., Gibbons, R.D., Maas, J.W., Bowden, C.L., Casper, R., Hanin, I., Javaid, J.I., Chang, S.S., Stokes, P.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Distinguishing benign from malignant euadrenal masses. Gross, M.D., Shapiro, B., Bouffard, J.A., Glazer, G.M., Francis, I.R., Wilton, G.P., Khafagi, F., Sonda, L.P. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
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  17. Plasma catecholamines after insulin hypoglycemia in Sheehan's syndrome. Klioua, N., Ruget, G., Selz, F., Cuche, J.L., Benmiloud, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Clonidine suppression test for pheochromocytoma: examples of misleading results. Taylor, H.C., Mayes, D., Anton, A.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  20. Influence of sex and obesity on plasma catecholamine response to isometric exercise. Gustafson, A.B., Kalkhoff, R.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
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  22. Plasma catecholamines during paroxysmal neurogenic hypertension in quadriplegic man. Mathias, C.J., Christensen, N.J., Corbett, J.L., Frankel, H.L., Spalding, J.M. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
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  24. Morphological and functional characterization of beta TC-6 cells--an insulin-secreting cell line derived from transgenic mice. Poitout, V., Stout, L.E., Armstrong, M.B., Walseth, T.F., Sorenson, R.L., Robertson, R.P. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Catecholamine secretory vesicle stimulus-transcription coupling in vivo. Demonstration by a novel transgenic promoter/photoprotein reporter and inhibition of secretion and transcription by the chromogranin A fragment catestatin. Mahata, S.K., Mahapatra, N.R., Mahata, M., Wang, T.C., Kennedy, B.P., Ziegler, M.G., O'Connor, D.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Time kinetics of the endocrine response to acute psychological stress. Richter, S.D., Schürmeyer, T.H., Schedlowski, M., Hädicke, A., Tewes, U., Schmidt, R.E., Wagner, T.O. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
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