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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Tooth Root

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Disease relevance of Tooth Root


High impact information on Tooth Root

  • We showed previously that Nfia-deficient mice exhibit agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain defects, whereas Nfic-deficient mice have agenesis of molar tooth roots and severe incisor defects [4].
  • Essential role for NFI-C/CTF transcription-replication factor in tooth root development [5].
  • Here, we report for the first time the expression of two alternate splice forms of amelogenins, M180 and the leucine-rich amelogenin peptide (LRAP), in the periodontal region of mouse tooth roots [6].
  • We propose that the induction of BMP-2 and -4 and their receptor by GH compliments the role of GH-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in promoting bone and tooth root formation [7].
  • To determine its possible role in tooth root formation, murine dentoalveolar tissues at sequential phases of development were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of BSP [8].

Biological context of Tooth Root


Anatomical context of Tooth Root

  • Hydroxyapatite implants have been studied as submerged tooth root substitutes and shown to maintain the bulk of the alveolar ridge [12].
  • A 25-year-old glycine chin implant previously used for facial esthetic enhancement had eroded the anterior cortical plate and migrated through the medullary bone, compressing the periosteum into the apex of the anterior tooth roots [13].
  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Complications such as loosening of the dowel and core or fracture of the remaining tooth root can be influenced by many factors, including the amount of remaining dentin, direction of the occlusal load, and design of the dowel [14].
  • These preliminary findings suggest a differential expression of ECM proteins on deciduous versus permanent tooth roots, which could act as a signal for selective odontoclast adhesion to, and subsequent resorption of, deciduous root surfaces [15].
  • Thus, even in the presence of extraneous protein, calcitonin will bind tightly but reversibly to tooth-root material, making it a good candidate for therapeutically protracted delivery to external root surfaces from root canals [16].

Associations of Tooth Root with chemical compounds

  • During root development in mice BSP, OPN, and OCN mRNAs were expressed selectively by cells lining the tooth root surface--cementoblasts--with high levels of expression at day 41 [17].
  • The results of this study suggest a close relationship between tooth-root form and patterns of occlusal loading [18].
  • Fluorine concentration changes in human periodontally diseased tooth roots following several treatment times with citric acid [19].
  • The fixation in the bone of an artificial titanium tooth root is believed to be initiated by the rapid adsorption of the proteins present in the surgical cavity on the titanium surface [20].
  • After processing and slicing, an unloaded control model demonstrated some low-order fringes adjacent to the coronal third of the abutment tooth roots, but was otherwise stress free [21].

Gene context of Tooth Root

  • These results indicate that Shh signaling is important in tooth root development [22].
  • These findings indicate that human dental cells express key mediators of hard tissue resorption and, though the RANK/RANKL-system may not be the sole regulator of tooth root resorption, these factors could at least contribute to this complex process under both physiological and pathological conditions [23].
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the specific localization of the IGF-I receptor in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) in the tooth root [24].
  • Studies on BSP expression during tooth root formation indicate a very precise expression and localization of this molecule during cementogenesis indicating that this molecule may play an important role in the formation of this mineralized tissue [25].
  • To summarize results from various studies focusing on determining the expression/localization of BSP and OPN during tooth root development, there is general agreement that OPN is expressed/localized to the root surface during cementogenesis and is also seen throughout the PDL region [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tooth Root


  1. Tooth root resorption induced in rats by diphenylhydantoin and parathyroidectomy. Robinson, P.B., Harvey, W. British journal of experimental pathology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. The pulpal response to topically applied citric acid. Kitchings, S.K., del Rio, C.E., Aufdemorte, T.B., Meffert, R.M., Lane, J.J. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Histologic response of replanted teeth pretreated with acidulated sodium fluoride. Barbakow, F.H., Austin, J.C., Cleaton-Jones, P.E. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. The transcription factor gene Nfib is essential for both lung maturation and brain development. Steele-Perkins, G., Plachez, C., Butz, K.G., Yang, G., Bachurski, C.J., Kinsman, S.L., Litwack, E.D., Richards, L.J., Gronostajski, R.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Essential role for NFI-C/CTF transcription-replication factor in tooth root development. Steele-Perkins, G., Butz, K.G., Lyons, G.E., Zeichner-David, M., Kim, H.J., Cho, M.I., Gronostajski, R.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand-mediated osteoclastogenic pathway is elevated in amelogenin-null mice. Hatakeyama, J., Sreenath, T., Hatakeyama, Y., Thyagarajan, T., Shum, L., Gibson, C.W., Wright, J.T., Kulkarni, A.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Growth hormone induces bone morphogenetic proteins and bone-related proteins in the developing rat periodontium. Li, H., Bartold, P.M., Young, W.G., Xiao, Y., Waters, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Bone sialoprotein is localized to the root surface during cementogenesis. Macneil, R.L., Sheng, N., Strayhorn, C., Fisher, L.W., Somerman, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Cementum: a phosphate-sensitive tissue. Nociti, F.H., Berry, J.E., Foster, B.L., Gurley, K.A., Kingsley, D.M., Takata, T., Miyauchi, M., Somerman, M.J. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of cementoblast gene expression by inorganic phosphate in vitro. Foster, B.L., Nociti, F.H., Swanson, E.C., Matsa-Dunn, D., Berry, J.E., Cupp, C.J., Zhang, P., Somerman, M.J. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunolocalization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and -3 and Osteogenic Protein-1 during murine tooth root morphogenesis and in other craniofacial structures. Thomadakis, G., Ramoshebi, L.N., Crooks, J., Rueger, D.C., Ripamonti, U. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Preventive implantations. Denissen, H.W., Kalk, W. International dental journal. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Facial and oral reconstruction following trauma and failed chin implant: a case report. Balshi, T.J., Wolfinger, G.J., Pryszlak, M.C., Balshi, S.F. Implant dentistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The effects of dowel design and load direction on dowel-and-core restorations. Yang, H.S., Lang, L.A., Molina, A., Felton, D.A. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Root resorption: the possible role of extracellular matrix proteins. Lee, A., Schneider, G., Finkelstein, M., Southard, T. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Therapeutic delivery of calcitonin to inhibit external inflammatory root resorption. II. Influence of calcitonin binding to root mineral. Wiebkin, O.W., Cardaci, S.C., Heithersay, G.S., Pierce, A.M. Endodontics & dental traumatology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of bone associated markers by tooth root lining cells, in situ and in vitro. D'Errico, J.A., MacNeil, R.L., Takata, T., Berry, J., Strayhorn, C., Somerman, M.J. Bone (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Tooth-root form and function in platyrrhine seed-eaters. Spencer, M.A. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluorine concentration changes in human periodontally diseased tooth roots following several treatment times with citric acid. Sampson, W.J., Crawford, A.W. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry: a new tool for probing interactions between proteins and metal surfaces. Use in dental implantology. Leize, E.M., Leize, E.J., Leize, M.C., Voegel, J.C., Van Dorsselaer, A. Anal. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Removable partial denture design: a photoelastic study. Stewart, B.L., Edwards, R.O. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling is Important in Tooth Root Development. Nakatomi, M., Morita, I., Eto, K., Ota, M.S. J. Dent. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunohistochemical localization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) in human deciduous teeth. Lossdörfer, S., Götz, W., Jäger, A. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates cell proliferation in the outer layer of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath and elongation of the tooth root in mouse molars in vitro. Fujiwara, N., Tabata, M.J., Endoh, M., Ishizeki, K., Nawa, T. Cell Tissue Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Localization and expression of osteopontin in mineralized and nonmineralized tissues of the periodontium. MacNeil, R.L., Berry, J., D'Errico, J., Strayhorn, C., Somerman, M.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of phosphoprotein isolated from mature and immature human tooth roots. McCurdy, S.P., Clarkson, B.H., Feagin, F.F. Arch. Oral Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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