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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ankylosis


High impact information on Ankylosis

  • Patients with severe ankylosing spondylitis of long duration often have spinal osteoporosis secondary to ankylosis and immobility [6].
  • All three of the human mutations showed significantly more activity than a previously described nonsense mutation that causes severe hydroxyapatite mineral deposition and widespread joint ankylosis in mice [7].
  • Loss of control over several components of inflammation resulted in extensive and rapid cartilage degradation, bone erosion, joint ankylosis, and deformities in Tnfip6-null animals [8].
  • Neither theophylline alone nor caffeine alone (each at 10 mg/kg/day) significantly affected the severity of the arthritis, but both agents markedly reversed the effect of MTX as measured by a severity index, hindpaw swelling, and hindpaw ankylosis [9].
  • These data suggest that TNFR1 is the main transducer of TNF proinflammatory effects establishing CIA, but the progression of arthritis to tissue destruction and ankylosis is independent of TNFR1 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ankylosis

  • Both caiman and mouse HERS covered the entire tooth root length, while in the gecko HERS was limited to the coronal portion of the root, allowing for cementoid-mediated ankylosis at the apical tip of the root [11].
  • These results give further clues as to how PC inhibits the progression of ankylosis in MPA [12].
  • The immunomodulatory effects of proteases, not seen with ibuprofen, may underlie a correction of aberrant IgG glycosylation and/or contribute to the increased capacity of protease to delay or forestall erosive and destructive arthritis or ankylosis [13].
  • Effects of occlusal loading on ankylosis, bone, and cementum formation during bone morphogenetic protein-2-stimulated periodontal regeneration in vivo [14].
  • Micro-computed tomography and histologic observations revealed that bone-like structures within the pulp and ankylosis between the roots and socket bones occurred commonly in the control group, but were uncommon in the alendronate group [15].

Biological context of Ankylosis


Anatomical context of Ankylosis

  • These initial studies using ank and PC-1 mutant mice were done to see if such mineral deposition and resulting ankylosis were occurring in the periodontium as well [20].
  • Six patients had hemifacial microsomia, and two suffered from posttraumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis [21].
  • The prevalence of grade V sacro-iliits--extensive ankylosis--was greater in HLA B27-positive than in HLA B27-negative patients, and ankylosis of apophyseal joints, ossification of the interspinous ligament, or block vertebrae were not seen in HLA B27-negative patients [22].
  • In approximately one-fourth of the patients with RA, the sacroiliac joints demonstrate radiographic changes of subchondral bony erosions and articular destruction, as well as ankylosis [23].
  • In teeth that are replanted following avulsion injury, recolonization of the PL space by osteogenic cells instead of by PL fibroblasts may favor bone formation (i.e. ankylosis) instead of PL regeneration [24].

Gene context of Ankylosis

  • There is hope that ankylosis may be preventable, but it remains to be shown whether patients benefit from long-term anti-TNF therapy and whether radiological progression and ankylosis can be stopped [25].
  • We found it noteworthy that no instances of epithelial down growth, ankylosis or root resorption were observed in the bFGF sites [26].
  • Ankylosis disappearance following application of BMP has been observed in the case of a small defect, which might be beneficial change for periodontal regeneration [27].
  • In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs have not been proved effective against inflammation and progressive ankylosis [28].
  • Characterization of a stapes ankylosis family with a NOG mutation [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ankylosis


  1. Autosomal dominant stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes, hyperopia, and skeletal anomalies is caused by heterozygous nonsense and frameshift mutations in NOG, the gene encoding noggin. Brown, D.J., Kim, T.B., Petty, E.M., Downs, C.A., Martin, D.M., Strouse, P.J., Moroi, S.E., Milunsky, J.M., Lesperance, M.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Proceedings: Selective carpo-metacarpal arthritis with early ankylosis in adult onset Still's disease. Medsger, T.A., Christy, W.C. Arthritis Rheum. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Degenerative disease of the sacroiliac joint. Resnick, D., Niwayama, G., Goergen, T.G. Investigative radiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. HLA-B27 has no effect on the phenotypic expression of progressive ankylosis in ank/ank mice. Krug, H.E., Taurog, J.D. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Anterior ankle arthrodesis with cross-screw fixation. A dowel graft method used in 20 cases. Stranks, G.J., Cecil, T., Jeffery, I.T. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Osteoporosis in early ankylosing spondylitis: a primary pathological event? Will, R., Palmer, R., Bhalla, A.K., Ring, F., Calin, A. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutations in ANKH cause chondrocalcinosis. Pendleton, A., Johnson, M.D., Hughes, A., Gurley, K.A., Ho, A.M., Doherty, M., Dixey, J., Gillet, P., Loeuille, D., McGrath, R., Reginato, A., Shiang, R., Wright, G., Netter, P., Williams, C., Kingsley, D.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced neutrophil extravasation and rapid progression of proteoglycan-induced arthritis in TSG-6-knockout mice. Szántó, S., Bárdos, T., Gál, I., Glant, T.T., Mikecz, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Reversal of the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate by the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists theophylline and caffeine: evidence that the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate are mediated via multiple adenosine receptors in rat adjuvant arthritis. Montesinos, M.C., Yap, J.S., Desai, A., Posadas, I., McCrary, C.T., Cronstein, B.N. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Attenuation of collagen-induced arthritis in 55-kDa TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1)-IgG1-treated and TNFR1-deficient mice. Mori, L., Iselin, S., De Libero, G., Lesslauer, W. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Caiman periodontium as an intermediate between basal vertebrate ankylosis-type attachment and mammalian "true" periodontium. McIntosh, J.E., Anderton, X., Flores-De-Jacoby, L., Carlson, D.S., Shuler, C.F., Diekwisch, T.G. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Fibroblasts from mice with progessive ankylosis proliferate excessively in response to transforming growth factor-beta 1. Krug, H.E. J. Investig. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of collagen induced arthritis by proteolytic enzymes: immunomodulatory and disease modifying effects. Chintalacharuvu, S.R., Urankar-Nagy, N., Petersilge, C.A., Abdul-Karim, F.W., Emancipator, S.N. J. Rheumatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of occlusal loading on ankylosis, bone, and cementum formation during bone morphogenetic protein-2-stimulated periodontal regeneration in vivo. King, G.N., Hughes, F.J. J. Periodontol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of alendronate on restoration of biomechanical properties of periodontium in replanted rat molars. Shibata, T., Komatsu, K., Shimada, A., Shimoda, S., Oida, S., Kawasaki, K., Chiba, M. J. Periodont. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Linked deficiencies in extracellular PP(i) and osteopontin mediate pathologic calcification associated with defective PC-1 and ANK expression. Johnson, K., Goding, J., Van Etten, D., Sali, A., Hu, S.I., Farley, D., Krug, H., Hessle, L., Millán, J.L., Terkeltaub, R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Periodontal regeneration by FGF-2 (bFGF) in primate models. Takayama, S., Murakami, S., Shimabukuro, Y., Kitamura, M., Okada, H. J. Dent. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Lung function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A study of the influence of disease activity and treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Franssen, M.J., van Herwaarden, C.L., van de Putte, L.B., Gribnau, F.W. J. Rheumatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Six-year histology of an avulsed molar reimplanted in a hydroxyapatite augmented socket: a case report. Sussman, H.I. Compendium (Newtown, Pa.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Cementum: a phosphate-sensitive tissue. Nociti, F.H., Berry, J.E., Foster, B.L., Gurley, K.A., Kingsley, D.M., Takata, T., Miyauchi, M., Somerman, M.J. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Unpredictable growth pattern of costochondral graft. Guyuron, B., Lasa, C.I. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Radiographic evaluation of patients with Bechterew's syndrome (ankylosing spondylitis) and their first-degree relatives. Findings in the spine and sacro-iliac joints and relations to non-radiographic findings. Vinje, O., Dale, K., Møller, P. Scand. J. Rheumatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Dislocation of the sacroiliac joint associated with rheumatoid arthritis. A case report. Gersoff, W.K., Burkus, J.K. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Storage conditions of avulsed teeth affect the phenotype of cultured human periodontal ligament cells. Lin, D.G., Kenny, D.J., Barrett, E.J., Lekic, P., McCulloch, C.A. J. Periodont. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Biological therapies in the spondyloarthritides--the current state. Braun, J., Sieper, J. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Regeneration of periodontal tissues by basic fibroblast growth factor. Murakami, S., Takayama, S., Ikezawa, K., Shimabukuro, Y., Kitamura, M., Nozaki, T., Terashima, A., Asano, T., Okada, H. J. Periodont. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Formation and resolution of ankylosis under application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to class III furcation defects in cats. Takahashi, D., Odajima, T., Morita, M., Kawanami, M., Kato, H. J. Periodont. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy in undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. Schnarr, S., Kuipers, J.G., Zeidler, H. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of a stapes ankylosis family with a NOG mutation. Brown, D.J., Kim, T.B., Petty, E.M., Downs, C.A., Martin, D.M., Strouse, P.J., Moroi, S.E., Gebarski, S.S., Lesperance, M.M. Otol. Neurotol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Significance of chin-brow vertical angle in correction of kyphotic deformity of ankylosing spondylitis patients. Suk, K.S., Kim, K.T., Lee, S.H., Kim, J.M. Spine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of stannous fluoride and tetracycline on periodontal repair after delayed tooth replantation in dogs. Selvig, K.A., Bjorvatn, K., Bogle, G.C., Wikesjö, U.M. Scandinavian journal of dental research. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Fibrous ankylosis after distraction osteogenesis of a costochondral neomandible in a patient with grade III hemifacial microsomia. Thomas, D.J., Rees, M.J. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Mandibular hypoplasia secondary to perinatal trauma: report of case. Berger, S.S., Stewart, R.E. Journal of oral surgery (American Dental Association : 1965) (1977) [Pubmed]
  34. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation with ankylosis in an 11-year-old girl: a case report. Redon, H., Iacona, C., Lot, G., Laredo, J.D. Spine. (2004) [Pubmed]
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