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MeSH Review

Tsetse Flies

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Disease relevance of Tsetse Flies


High impact information on Tsetse Flies

  • We show here that the AnTat 1.1 ELC is conserved in procyclic trypanosomes, obtained either from the midgut of infected Glossina or from cultures, and in metacyclic trypanosomes, although the AnTat 1.1 serotype is not detected among metacyclic antigen types [6].
  • Comparison of the sequence of expansion segment V2 in D. melanogaster 18S rRNA with the same region in three other Drosophila species and the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans) allows us to distinguish between two models for the secondary structure of this region [7].
  • Thus, induction of resistance to quinapyramine in T. congolense IL 1180 was associated with cross-resistance to isometamidium, homidium, and diminazene and did not compromise the population's ability to undergo full cyclical development in tsetse flies [8].
  • The recovered animals were completely immune to challenge by Glossina morsitans subsp. centralis infected with clone IL Tat 2.1, which had initiated the infection, as well as with another clone (IL Tat 2.2) belonging to the same serodeme, but they were susceptible to a tsetse-transmitted heterologous challenge with isolate STIB 367-H [9].
  • Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-linked "malic" enzyme in flight muscle of the tse-tse fly (Glossina) and other insects [10].

Biological context of Tsetse Flies


Anatomical context of Tsetse Flies


Associations of Tsetse Flies with chemical compounds

  • 3. A partial purification of the NAD-linked "malic" enzyme from Glossina was effected by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, which separated the enzyme from malate dehydrogenase and NADP-linked "malic" enzyme, but not from oxaloacetate decarboxylase [10].
  • The clone which expressed the highest level of resistance to isometamidium in mice (IL 3270) was transmitted to Boran cattle via the bite of infected Glossina morsitans centralis [20].
  • A midgut trypanolysin and an agglutinin from Glossina palpalis subspecies were isolated and partially characterized using anion-exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [21].
  • Spike trains from individual antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) obtained during steady-state conditions (spontaneous as well as during stimulation with 1-octen-3-ol) and dynamic stimulation with repetitive pulses of 1-octen-3-ol were investigated by studying the spike frequency and the temporal structure of the trains [22].
  • Molecular characterization of two serine proteases expressed in gut tissue of the African trypanosome vector, Glossina morsitans morsitans [23].

Gene context of Tsetse Flies

  • The inactivation of proline dehydrogenase by several L-Pro analogues was investigated with the aim to block the essential metabolic pathway of tsetse flies allowing the degradation of L-Pro to L-Glu [5].
  • We report the characterization of 11 antioxidant genes from the tsetse fly Glossina m. morsitans [11].
  • The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Glossina morsitans) and in one orthopteran out-group, Schistocerca gregaria [24].
  • A high prevalence of mixed trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in Sinfra, Côte d'Ivoire, detected by DNA amplification [25].
  • In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction was used initially to demonstrate the presence of mariner sequences in seven species/subspecies of tsetse flies [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tsetse Flies

  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to characterize trypanosome infections in tsetse flies from 3 sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon [27].
  • To determine the duration after treatment of cattle with diminazene aceturate that the drug influences the tsetse infectivity and transmissibility of a drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense, six Boran cattle were infected with T. congolense IL 3338 via the bites of Glossina morsitans centralis [28].


  1. Wigglesworthia gen. nov. and Wigglesworthia glossinidia sp. nov., taxa consisting of the mycetocyte-associated, primary endosymbionts of tsetse flies. Aksoy, S. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Independent evolution of Toll and related genes in insects and mammals. Luo, C., Zheng, L. Immunogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Interference between different serodemes of Trypanosoma congolense in the establishment of superinfections in goats following transmission by tsetse. Dwinger, R.H., Luckins, A.G., Murray, M., Rae, P., Moloo, S.K. Parasite Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Measurement of risk in endemic areas of human African trypanosomiasis in Côte d'Ivoire. Laveissière, C., Sané, B., Méda, H.A. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanism-based inhibition of proline dehydrogenase by proline analogues. Tritsch, D., Mawlawi, H., Biellmann, J.F. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Inactivation and reactivation of a variant-specific antigen gene in cyclically transmitted Trypanosoma brucei. Delauw, M.F., Pays, E., Steinert, M., Aerts, D., Van Meirvenne, N., Le Ray, D. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolution of the secondary structures and compensatory mutations of the ribosomal RNAs of Drosophila melanogaster. Hancock, J.M., Tautz, D., Dover, G.A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Derivation and characterization of a quinapyramine-resistant clone of Trypanosoma congolense. Ndoutamia, G., Moloo, S.K., Murphy, N.B., Peregrine, A.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Resistance of cattle to tsetse-transmitted challenge with Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma congolense after spontaneous recovery from syringe-passaged infections. Nantulya, V.M., Musoke, A.J., Rurangirwa, F.R., Moloo, S.K. Infect. Immun. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-linked "malic" enzyme in flight muscle of the tse-tse fly (Glossina) and other insects. Hoek, J.B., Pearson, D.J., Olembo, N.K. Biochem. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Antioxidant gene expression in the blood-feeding fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. Munks, R.J., Sant'Anna, M.R., Grail, W., Gibson, W., Igglesden, T., Yoshiyama, M., Lehane, S.M., Lehane, M.J. Insect Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Absence of detectable alteration in the kinetoplast DNA of a Trypanosoma brucei clone following loss of ability to infect the insect vector (Glossina morsitans). Hajduk, S.L., Vickerman, K. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Excretion of uric acid and amino acids during diuresis in the adult female Glossina morsitans. Moloo, S.K. Acta Trop. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis: designation of linkage groups and the mapping of eight biochemical and visible marker genes. Gooding, R.H., Rolseth, B.M. Genome (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Cyclic AMP is a likely mediator of ovulation in the tsetse fly. Denlinger, D.L., Chaudhury, M.F., Dhadialla, T.S. Experientia (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. Dale, C., Maudlin, I. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. A family of genes with growth factor and adenosine deaminase similarity are preferentially expressed in the salivary glands of Glossina m. morsitans. Li, S., Aksoy, S. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Trypanosoma brucei: stimulation of adenylate cyclase by proventriculus and esophagus tissue of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. van den Abbeele, J., Rolin, S., Claes, Y., Le Ray, D., Pays, E., Coosemans, M. Exp. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Proline transport by tsetse fly Glossina morsitans flight muscle mitochondria. Njagi, E.N., Olembo, N.K., Pearson, D.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Variation in resistance to isometamidium chloride and diminazene aceturate by clones derived from a stock of Trypanosoma congolense. Peregrine, A.S., Knowles, G., Ibitayo, A.I., Scott, J.R., Moloo, S.K., Murphy, N.B. Parasitology (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of midgut trypanolysin and trypanoagglutinin in Glossina palpalis sspp. (Diptera: Glossinidae). Stiles, J.K., Ingram, G.A., Wallbanks, K.R., Molyneux, D.H., Maudlin, I., Welburn, S. Parasitology (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Neural coding in antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Voskamp, K.E., Noorman, N., Mastebroek, H.A., Van Schoot, N.E., Den Otter, C.J. Chem. Senses (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of two serine proteases expressed in gut tissue of the African trypanosome vector, Glossina morsitans morsitans. Yan, J., Cheng, Q., Li, C.B., Aksoy, S. Insect Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Conservation of capa peptide-induced nitric oxide signalling in Diptera. Pollock, V.P., McGettigan, J., Cabrero, P., Maudlin, I.M., Dow, J.A., Davies, S.A. J. Exp. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A high prevalence of mixed trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in Sinfra, Côte d'Ivoire, detected by DNA amplification. Masiga, D.K., McNamara, J.J., Laveissière, C., Truc, P., Gibson, W.C. Parasitology (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a mariner element from the tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis palpalis. Blanchetot, A., Gooding, R.H. Insect Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of trypanosome infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in wild tsetse flies in Cameroon. Morlais, I., Grebaut, P., Bodo, J.M., Djoha, S., Cuny, G. Parasitology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of diminazene aceturate on the infectivity and transmissibility of drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis. Diack, A., Moloo, S.K., Peregrine, A.S. Vet. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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