The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Tat  -  tyrosine aminotransferase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, TAT, Tyrosine aminotransferase
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Tat


Psychiatry related information on Tat

  • Alcohol abuse is a risk factor of HIV infection and we hypothesize that alcohol and Tat may interact in an additive or synergistic fashion to influence molecular processes which can contribute to their toxic effects [6].
  • This would allow excess Tat to remain outside the cell and interact with synaptosomal membranes, leading to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, which could contribute to dementia associated with HIV [7].
  • The recombination TAT-choline acetyltransferase fusion protein injected intravenously improves the memory and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease model mice induced by amyloid-beta peptide [8].

High impact information on Tat


Chemical compound and disease context of Tat

  • Pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant properties of the HIV protein Tat in a microglial cell line: attenuation by 17 beta-estradiol [12].
  • MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is known to protect against methamphetamine neurotoxicity, prevents microglial activation by LPS and HIV Tat [5].
  • Finally, we demonstrated that TAT-fusion proteins did not affect the insulin secretion capability of islets, as determined by glucose static incubation and by reversion of hyperglycemia in diabetic immunodeficient mice [13].
  • METHODS: We compared the inducible 2-component expression system (C3-human immunodeficiency virus/transactivator of transcription [C3-Tat/HIV]) with the constitutive cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in the polyarticular collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in mice [14].
  • This short peptide contains two runs of four arginine residues, suggesting that the VP13/14 nuclear localization signal may behave in a manner similar to that of the arginine-rich nuclear localization signals of the retrovirus transactivator proteins Tat, Rev, and Rex [15].

Biological context of Tat


Anatomical context of Tat

  • In agreement with in vivo studies, hepatocyte lines derived from mice homozygous for the deletion expressed reduced mRNA levels of a number of liver genes including TAT, PEPCK, X1, X2, and X7 in comparison with heterozygous and wild-type cell lines [18].
  • TAT-specific mRNA was detected in normal but not in mutant hepatocyte lines [19].
  • The cytokines and possibly chemokines that are induced by Tat modify the action of astrocytes such that the survival of neurons is compromised [20].
  • Pathogenetic alteration induced by Tat involves a series of interactions between circulating monocyte/macrophages, endothelial cells, and astrocytes [20].
  • In addition, T cell responses to regulatory proteins Rev, Nef, and Tat were induced [21].

Associations of Tat with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Tat

  • TNFalpha suppressed expression of mature liver-specific genes such as tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoproteins [26].
  • In conclusion, the data show that the 5'-flanking region of the rat TAT gene contains elements specifying regulated expression and establish that the 5'-flanking region of the TAT gene is responsive to the enzyme deficiency characteristic of the albino lethal mice [27].
  • Since Kaposi spindle cells, which are the proliferative component of the sarcoma, differentiate from an endothelial precursor, it is noteworthy that spindle cells derived from Kaposi-like lesions of the Tat transgenic mice downregulate EDF-1 when compared to microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the same tissue [28].
  • Interestingly, P15-Tat induced apoptosis as evidenced by rapid caspase activation and cellular cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cell lines [29].
  • Efficient retroviral gene transfer of a Tat-regulated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene for HIV gene therapy [30].

Other interactions of Tat

  • This assignment demonstrated that the Tat-1 structural gene was not syntenic with Tse-1, a chromosome 11-linked locus that negatively regulates TAT expression in trans (A. M. Killary and R. E. K. Fournier, Cell 38:523-534, 1984) [2].
  • By contrast, the deletions do not affect the appearance of three DNase I-hypersensitive sites upstream of the TAT promoter in the liver, nor do they affect two hypersensitive sites upstream of the expressed alpha-fetoprotein gene [1].
  • Moreover, synergistic effects of Tat plus METH on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta mRNA levels were observed in the striatal region [22].
  • These results indicate that the hsdr-1 locus is dispensable for the glucocorticoid induced transcription of these genes but not of TAT [31].
  • The mechanism of destruction of the CNS by Tat appears to involve autocrine and paracrine pathways that depend not only on Tat, but cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways that are altered by viral infection [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tat


  1. Selective loss of a DNase I hypersensitive site upstream of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene in mice homozygous for lethal albino deletions. Zaret, K.S., Milos, P., Lia, M., Bali, D., Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Chromosomal assignment and trans regulation of the tyrosine aminotransferase structural gene in hepatoma hybrid cells. Peterson, T.C., Killary, A.M., Fournier, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro in acutely and persistently infected human CD4+ mononuclear cells expressing murine and humanized anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat single-chain variable fragment intrabodies. Mhashilkar, A.M., LaVecchio, J., Eberhardt, B., Porter-Brooks, J., Boisot, S., Dove, J.H., Pumphrey, C., Li, X., Weissmahr, R.N., Ring, D.B., Ramstedt, U., Marasco, W.A. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell-dependent interference of a series of new 6-aminoquinolone derivatives with viral (HIV/CMV) transactivation. Stevens, M., Balzarini, J., Tabarrini, O., Andrei, G., Snoeck, R., Cecchetti, V., Fravolini, A., De Clercq, E., Pannecouque, C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. MK-801 and dextromethorphan block microglial activation and protect against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thomas, D.M., Kuhn, D.M. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Proinflammatory synergism of ethanol and HIV-1 Tat protein in brain tissue. Flora, G., Pu, H., Lee, Y.W., Ravikumar, R., Nath, A., Hennig, B., Toborek, M. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of apolipoprotein E on the human immunodeficiency virus protein Tat in neuronal cultures and synaptosomes. Pocernich, C.B., Sultana, R., Hone, E., Turchan, J., Martins, R.N., Calabrese, V., Nath, A., Butterfield, D.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Alternative therapy of Alzheimer's disease via supplementation with choline acetyltransferase. Fu, A.L., Li, Q., Dong, Z.H., Huang, S.J., Wang, Y.X., Sun, M.J. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A genetic analysis of extinction: trans-dominant loci regulate expression of liver-specific traits in hepatoma hybrid cells. Killary, A.M., Fournier, R.E. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Tat protein of HIV-1 stimulates growth of cells derived from Kaposi's sarcoma lesions of AIDS patients. Ensoli, B., Barillari, G., Salahuddin, S.Z., Gallo, R.C., Wong-Staal, F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Transcription factor CREM coordinates the timing of hepatocyte proliferation in the regenerating liver. Servillo, G., Della Fazia, M.A., Sassone-Corsi, P. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant properties of the HIV protein Tat in a microglial cell line: attenuation by 17 beta-estradiol. Bruce-Keller, A.J., Barger, S.W., Moss, N.I., Pham, J.T., Keller, J.N., Nath, A. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Proteins linked to a protein transduction domain efficiently transduce pancreatic islets. Embury, J., Klein, D., Pileggi, A., Ribeiro, M., Jayaraman, S., Molano, R.D., Fraker, C., Kenyon, N., Ricordi, C., Inverardi, L., Pastori, R.L. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. C3-Tat/HIV-regulated intraarticular human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene therapy results in efficient inhibition of collagen-induced arthritis superior to cytomegalovirus-regulated expression of the same transgene. Bakker, A.C., van de Loo, F.A., Joosten, L.A., Arntz, O.J., Varley, A.W., Munford, R.S., van den Berg, W.B. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Nuclear localization and shuttling of herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP13/14. Donnelly, M., Elliott, G. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Deletions near the albino locus on chromosome 7 of the mouse affect the level of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. Schmid, W., Müller, G., Schütz, G., Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Isolation, characterization and chromosomal mapping of the mouse tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Müller, G., Scherer, G., Zentgraf, H., Ruppert, S., Herrmann, B., Lehrach, H., Schütz, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and characterization of mouse hepatocyte lines carrying a lethal albino deletion. Chou, J.Y., Ruppert, S., Shelly, L.L., Pan, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Establishment and partial characterization of SV40 virus-immortalized hepatocyte lines of normal and lethal mutant mice carrying a deletion on chromosome 7. Paul, D., Kwon, B.S., Höhne, M., Tönjes, R., Haq, A.K., Hoffmann, B. J. Cell. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular pathway involved in HIV-1-induced CNS pathology: role of viral regulatory protein, Tat. Rappaport, J., Joseph, J., Croul, S., Alexander, G., Del Valle, L., Amini, S., Khalili, K. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type-1-specific immunity with a novel gene transport unit (GTU)-MultiHIV DNA vaccine. Blazevic, V., Männik, A., Malm, M., Sikut, R., Valtavaara, M., Toots, U., Ustav, M., Krohn, K. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Methamphetamine potentiates HIV-1 Tat protein-mediated activation of redox-sensitive pathways in discrete regions of the brain. Flora, G., Lee, Y.W., Nath, A., Hennig, B., Maragos, W., Toborek, M. Exp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses in the brain. Flora, G., Pu, H., Hennig, B., Toborek, M. Neuromolecular Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for rat tyrosine aminotransferase. Scherer, G., Schmid, W., Strange, C.M., Röwekamp, W., Schütz, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of the murine fatty acid transport protein gene and its insulin response sequence. Hui, T.Y., Frohnert, B.I., Smith, A.J., Schaffer, J.E., Bernlohr, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. TNF-alpha regulates mouse fetal hepatic maturation induced by oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Kamiya, A., Gonzalez, F.J. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Perinatal activation of a tyrosine aminotransferase fusion gene does not occur in albino lethal mice. Beermann, F., Hummler, E., Schmid, E., Schütz, G. Mech. Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Cloning and characterization of murine EDF-1. De Benedictis, L., Mariotti, M., Dragoni, I., Maier, J.A. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Antitumor effect of a novel proapoptotic peptide that impairs the phosphorylation by the protein kinase 2 (casein kinase 2). Perea, S.E., Reyes, O., Puchades, Y., Mendoza, O., Vispo, N.S., Torrens, I., Santos, A., Silva, R., Acevedo, B., López, E., Falcón, V., Alonso, D.F. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Efficient retroviral gene transfer of a Tat-regulated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene for HIV gene therapy. Caruso, M., Bank, A. Virus Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Transcriptional control in hepatocytes of normal and c14CoS albino deletion mice. Tönjes, R.R., Xanthopoulos, K.G., Darnell, J.E., Paul, D. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular recognition of the human coactivator CBP by the HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat. Vendel, A.C., Lumb, K.J. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Pronounced acute immunosuppression in vivo mediated by HIV Tat challenge. Cohen, S.S., Li, C., Ding, L., Cao, Y., Pardee, A.B., Shevach, E.M., Cohen, D.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Induction of C chemokine XCL1 (lymphotactin/single C motif-1 alpha/activation-induced, T cell-derived and chemokine-related cytokine) expression by HIV-1 Tat protein. Kim, B.O., Liu, Y., Zhou, B.Y., He, J.J. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities