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Gene Review

FGF2  -  fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic)

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: BFGF, FGF-2
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Disease relevance of FGF2


High impact information on FGF2


Chemical compound and disease context of FGF2


Biological context of FGF2


Anatomical context of FGF2

  • Only neurospheres pre-exposed to BMP-2 and FGF2 formed close contacts with the dorsal neuroepithelium corresponding to the neural crest area [15].
  • METHODS: The retina of embryonic day 4 (E4) chicks was removed and a heparin coated bead soaked in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was placed into the optic cup [11].
  • Temporal dynamics of neurite outgrowth promoted by basic fibroblast growth factor in chick ciliary ganglia [16].
  • FGF-2 and FGF-4 can mimic many of the effects of mandibular epithelium from the medial region, including supporting the expression of Msx genes, outgrowth of the mandibular processes and elongation of Meckel's cartilage [17].
  • In contrast, bFGF can promote global growth of the neuritic network both in whole ganglia and in dissociated cultures for times up to 48 hr, and this effect is related to an increase in the growth rate of single neurites [16].

Associations of FGF2 with chemical compounds

  • Its down-regulation by antisense oligonucleotides and blockade of its signaling pathway (binding to FGF-R1, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ERK inhibition) decreased bcl-x(L) and bcl-2 levels and and enhanced apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous FGF2 supported neuronal survival through a pathway similar to that of exogenous FGF2 [18].
  • The heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-1 and glypican-1 (glypican), are low affinity receptors for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) [19].
  • The angiogenic activity of uPA is significantly inhibited by neutralizing anti-FGF2 antibodies or by pretreatment with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride [20].
  • Molecular dynamics calculations support the assumption that glycol-split residues act as flexible joints that, while favoring 1:1 binding to FGF2, disrupt the linearity of heparin chains necessary for formation of active complexes with FGFRs [21].
  • Resveratrol demonstrated potent inhibition (effective dose50=0.7+/-0.1 microM) of FGF2-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth [22].

Regulatory relationships of FGF2


Other interactions of FGF2

  • Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a potent and multifunctional neurotrophic factor that can influence neuronal survival and differentiation [16].
  • Furthermore, although the capillary network initiated by VEGF and b-FGF lasts no more than 7 days, addition of a sulfated oligosaccharide significantly amplifies angiogenesis and stabilizes the capillary network of new blood vessels [26].
  • The spatiotemporal expression of syndecan-3 during feather development suggests that this cell-surface HSPG may be involved in the response of competent embryonic skin dermis to FGF-2 [13].
  • FGFR3 was expressed in all the chondrocyte types, yet strongly increased in the LS, USC, USP, and Ti in that order according to the concentration of FGF2 [27].
  • We have examined the consequences of selectively and independently inhibiting FGF1 or FGF2 expression using antisense oligonucleotides in embryonic chick retinal cells, differentiating in vitro [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FGF2


  1. Exogenous growth factors induce the production of ganglion cells at the retinal margin. Fischer, A.J., Dierks, B.D., Reh, T.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Different aspects of gliosis in retinal Muller glia can be induced by CNTF, insulin, and FGF2 in the absence of damage. Fischer, A.J., Omar, G., Eubanks, J., McGuire, C.R., Dierks, B.D., Reh, T.A. Mol. Vis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential roles of fibroblast growth factor-2 during development and maintenance of auditory sensory epithelia. Carnicero, E., Zelarayan, L.C., Rüttiger, L., Knipper, M., Alvarez, Y., Alonso, M.T., Schimmang, T. J. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. FGF2 signaling is required for the development of neuronal circuits regulating blood pressure. Dono, R., Faulhaber, J., Galli, A., Zuniga, A., Volk, T., Texido, G., Zeller, R., Ehmke, H. Circ. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Requirement of vascular integrin alpha v beta 3 for angiogenesis. Brooks, P.C., Clark, R.A., Cheresh, D.A. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction by soluble factors of organized axial structures in chick epiblasts. Mitrani, E., Shimoni, Y. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Notochord repression of endodermal Sonic hedgehog permits pancreas development. Hebrok, M., Kim, S.K., Melton, D.A. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. gro-beta, a -C-X-C- chemokine, is an angiogenesis inhibitor that suppresses the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Cao, Y., Chen, C., Weatherbee, J.A., Tsang, M., Folkman, J. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. p38 MAP kinase negatively regulates endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in FGF-2-stimulated angiogenesis. Matsumoto, T., Turesson, I., Book, M., Gerwins, P., Claesson-Welsh, L. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Exogenous growth factors stimulate the regeneration of ganglion cells in the chicken retina. Fischer, A.J., Reh, T.A. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Retina regeneration in the chick embryo is not induced by spontaneous Mitf downregulation but requires FGF/FGFR/MEK/Erk dependent upregulation of Pax6. Spence, J.R., Madhavan, M., Aycinena, J.C., Del Rio-Tsonis, K. Mol. Vis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of alternatively spliced bFGF first coding exons and antisense mRNAs during chicken embryogenesis. Zúñiga Mejía Borja, A., Meijers, C., Zeller, R. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. FGF-2 signaling is sufficient to induce dermal condensations during feather development. Song, H.K., Lee, S.H., Goetinck, P.F. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Suppression of fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 by antisense oligonucleotides in embryonic chick retinal cells in vitro inhibits neuronal differentiation and survival. Désiré, L., Courtois, Y., Jeanny, J.C. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. BMP-2-dependent integration of adult mouse subventricular stem cells into the neural crest of chick and quail embryos. Busch, C., Oppitz, M., Sailer, M.H., Just, L., Metzger, M., Drews, U. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Temporal dynamics of neurite outgrowth promoted by basic fibroblast growth factor in chick ciliary ganglia. Zamburlin, P., Gilardino, A., Dalmazzo, S., Ariano, P., Lovisolo, D. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Region- and stage-specific effects of FGFs and BMPs in chick mandibular morphogenesis. Mina, M., Wang, Y.H., Ivanisevic, A.M., Upholt, W.B., Rodgers, B. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Endogenous and exogenous fibroblast growth factor 2 support survival of chick retinal neurons by control of neuronal neuronal bcl-x(L) and bcl-2 expression through a fibroblast berowth factor receptor 1- and ERK-dependent pathway. Désiré, L., Courtois, Y., Jeanny, J.C. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of posthatch feed deprivation on heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, and glypican expression: implications for muscle growth potential in chickens. Velleman, S.G., Mozdziak, P.E. Poult. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. In vivo angiogenic activity of urokinase: role of endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2. Ribatti, D., Leali, D., Vacca, A., Giuliani, R., Gualandris, A., Roncali, L., Nolli, M.L., Presta, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Undersulfated and glycol-split heparins endowed with antiangiogenic activity. Casu, B., Guerrini, M., Guglieri, S., Naggi, A., Perez, M., Torri, G., Cassinelli, G., Ribatti, D., Carminati, P., Giannini, G., Penco, S., Pisano, C., Belleri, M., Rusnati, M., Presta, M. J. Med. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of resveratrol on angiogenesis and platelet/fibrin-accelerated tumor growth in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. Mousa, S.S., Mousa, S.S., Mousa, S.A. Nutrition and cancer. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes chick photoreceptor development in vitro. Fuhrmann, S., Kirsch, M., Hofmann, H.D. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Basic fibroblast and platelet-derived growth factors as modulators of actin and alpha-actinin in chick myocardiocytes during development. Vélez, C., Aránega, A.E., Prados, J.C., Melguizo, C., Alvarez, L., Aránega, A. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of proliferation and osteochondrogenic differentiation of periosteum-derived cells by transforming growth factor-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor. Iwasaki, M., Nakahara, H., Nakata, K., Nakase, T., Kimura, T., Ono, K. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Synthetic oligosaccharide stimulates and stabilizes angiogenesis: structure-function relationships and potential mechanisms. Mousa, S.A., Feng, X., Xie, J., Du, Y., Hua, Y., He, H., O'Connor, L., Linhardt, R.J. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by fibroblast growth factor 2 in cultured chick embryo chondrocytes. Suh, J.Y., Kim, Y.S., Park, J.W., Sonn, J.K., Kim, W.T. Cell Biol. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. FGF2 plays a key role in embryonic cerebrospinal fluid trophic properties over chick embryo neuroepithelial stem cells. Martín, C., Bueno, D., Alonso, M.I., Moro, J.A., Callejo, S., Parada, C., Martín, P., Carnicero, E., Gato, A. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Suppression of fibroblast growth factor 2 expression by antisense oligonucleotides inhibits embryonic chick neural retina cell differentiation and survival in vivo. Désiré, L., Head, M.W., Fayein, N.A., Courtois, Y., Jeanny, J.C. Dev. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of basic fibroblast growth factor in the formation of the capillary plexus in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. An in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Ribatti, D., Bertossi, M., Nico, B., Vacca, A., Ria, R., Riva, A., Roncali, L., Presta, M. J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Osteopontin (Eta-1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 cross-talk in angiogenesis. Leali, D., Dell'Era, P., Stabile, H., Sennino, B., Chambers, A.F., Naldini, A., Sozzani, S., Nico, B., Ribatti, D., Presta, M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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