The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1L191D     2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[3...

Synonyms: 3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl hexopyranoside
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of salicin

  • E. coli K12 strains chi342LD cannot grow on salicin but derivatives with two mutations in the bgl operon, an excision of IS150 (formally called IS103) from bglF and a point mutation or insertion in bflR, grow rapidly on this sugar [1].
  • Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB [2].
  • One of these genomospecies contains strains that are negative in indole, salicin, and esculin reactions (biogroup 1) and has been named Proteus penneri [3].
  • Identification by bacteriophages was compared with species identification by prereduced anaerobically sterilized biochemical testing with salicin as the differentiating test [4].
  • However, with the addition of cellobiose and salicin disks and the inclusion of methyl red to the Minitek test and the use of the Voges-Proskauer test and gas production in EC medium at elevated temperature as standard tests, the identification of these Enterobacteriaceae from meats would be greatly facilitated [5].

Psychiatry related information on salicin

  • Next, we determined whether this pattern of stimulus-generalization could be explained by salicin and aristolochic acid generating distinct ensemble, rate, temporal, or spatiotemporal codes [6].

High impact information on salicin

  • As salicin is not mutagenic, it has been suggested that excision mutations in bglF might serve only to create the potential for a secondary selectively advantageous mutation [1].
  • We show here, however, that these double mutants can be accounted for by spontaneous mutation to intermediate genotypes in non-growing populations, coupled with slow growth of some of these intermediates on salicin, which enables their populations to reach a size where secondary mutations allowing rapid growth on salicin become common [1].
  • AtSUC9 showed low substrate specificity, similar to AtSUC2 (At1g22710), and transported a wide range of glucosides, including helicin, salicin, arbutin, maltose, fraxin, esculin, turanose, and alpha-methyl-d-glucose [7].
  • Escherichia coli does not use beta-glucoside sugars; however, mutations in several loci can activate the cryptic bgl operon and permit growth on the beta-glucoside sugars arbutin and salicin [8].
  • A salicin+ arbutin+ cellobiose+ mutant has been isolated from a strain which is deleted for the both the bgl and cel operons [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of salicin

  • The ECOR collection of natural Escherichia coli isolates was screened to determine the proportion of strains that carried functional, cryptic and nonfunctional genes for utilization of the three beta-glucoside sugars, arbutin, salicin and cellobiose [10].
  • We placed 43 isolates belonging to the Proteus vulgaris complex into proposed DNA groups (genomovars) using five previously recommended tests (tests for esculin hydrolysis, production of acid from salicin, L-rhamnose fermentation, and elaboration of DNase and lipase) [11].
  • In Bacillus subtilis, aryl-beta-glucosides such as salicin and arbutin are catabolized by the gene products of bglP and bglH, encoding an enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate sugar-phosphotransferase system and a phospho-beta-glucosidase, respectively [12].
  • The Eubacterium aerofaciens group was divided into four groups by fermentation patterns of sucrose and cellobiose, and were further divided into 16 sub-groups by fermentation patterns of aesculin, salicin and amygdalin [13].
  • A modified version of sorbitol MacConkey medium containing cefixime and tellurite (CT-SMAC medium) was produced by adding salicin and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to CT-SMAC medium; this medium was designated CT-SSMAC medium and was used to isolate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts [14].

Biological context of salicin

  • Escherichia coli K12 does not metabolize beta-glucosides such as arbutin and salicin because of lack of expression of the bglBSRC operon, which contains structural genes for transport (bglC) and hydrolysis (bglB) of phospho-beta-glucosides [15].
  • A newly observed phenotype of pgl strains is a lowered frequency of appearance of Bgl+ mutants that can utilize the beta-glucoside salicin [16].
  • A phylogeny based upon groEL gene sequences was discordant with rhamnose or salicin fermentation data for many taxa, and no reliable phenotypic correlations could be established [17].
  • Functional analysis of the bglF and bglA products revealed that they are simultaneously required for uptake, phosphorylation and breakdown of methyl beta-glucoside, salicin and arbutin [18].
  • Similarly, the accumulation of salicin, salicortin, chlorogenic acid (+)-catechin, proanthocyanidins, and unknowns varied significantly according to source (tissue, individual, or clone), and in most cases the environmental (within-clonal) variation was nearly as high as the genetic variation (between-clones) [19].

Anatomical context of salicin


Associations of salicin with other chemical compounds

  • Transcription of bvrB was induced by cellobiose and salicin but not by arbutin [23].
  • (iv) All tests for carbohydrate fermentation except for raffinose and salicin were read after the addition of 2 to 3 drops of 0.025% phenol red (pH 7.2) [24].
  • Using computer-generated random list, 114 patients were allocated to receive a daily dose of herbal extract containing 240 mg of salicin [PAID (phyto-anti-inflammatory drug) group] and 114 were allocated to receive 12.5 mg of the synthetic COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib [NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) group] [25].
  • Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value [26].
  • An application is shown for monitoring the glycoside salicin and its hydrolysis product saligenin in a commercially available willow bark product that is used for making tea [27].

Gene context of salicin

  • Escherichia coli K12 strain chi 342LD requires two mutations in the bgl (beta-glucosidase) operon, bglR0----bglR+ and excision of IS103 from within bglF, in order to utilize salicin [28].
  • When introduced into wild-type E. coli it allows this organism to use cellobiose, arbutin and salicin; it also complements bglB and bglC mutants of Escherichia coli indicating that arbutin and salicin utilization is due to the products of the pBEC2 cloned genes [29].
  • RA trial: Patients were randomized to receive willow bark extract, corresponding to 240 mg salicin/day (n = 13) or placebo (n = 13) [30].
  • This gene encodes the phospho-beta-glucosidase involved in cleavage of the sugars cellobiose, salicin and arbutin [31].
  • Two moderate-quality trials utilizing Salix alba (White willow bark) found moderate evidence for short-term improvements in pain and rescue medication for daily doses standardized to 120 mg or 240 mg salicin with an additional trial demonstrating relative equivalence to 12.5 mg per day of rofecoxib [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of salicin


  1. Experimental evidence for an alternative to directed mutation in the bgl operon. Mittler, J.E., Lenski, R.E. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB. Faure, D., Desair, J., Keijers, V., Bekri, M.A., Proost, P., Henrissat, B., Vanderleyden, J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Replacement of NCTC 4175, the current type strain of Proteus vulgaris, with ATCC 29905. Request for an opinion. Brenner, D.J., Hickman-Brenner, F.W., Holmes, B., Hawkey, P.M., Penner, J.L., Grimont, P.A., O'Hara, C.M. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Differentiation of Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron by means of bacteriophage. Cooper, S.W., Szymczak, E.G., Jacobus, N.V., Tally, F.P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemical characteristics and identification of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from meats. Stiles, M.E., Ng, L.K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Temporal coding mediates discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect. Glendinning, J.I., Davis, A., Rai, M. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporter AtSUC9. High-Affinity Transport Activity, Intragenic Control of Expression, and Early Flowering Mutant Phenotype. Sivitz, A.B., Reinders, A., Johnson, M.E., Krentz, A.D., Grof, C.P., Perroux, J.M., Ward, J.M. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Directed evolution of cellobiose utilization in Escherichia coli K12. Kricker, M., Hall, B.G. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. A fourth Escherichia coli gene system with the potential to evolve beta-glucoside utilization. Parker, L.L., Hall, B.G. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Cryptic genes for cellobiose utilization in natural isolates of Escherichia coli. Hall, B.G., Betts, P.W. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Biochemical identification and characterization of DNA groups within the Proteus vulgaris complex. Janda, J.M., Abbott, S.L., Khashe, S., Probert, W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Transcriptional analysis of bglPH expression in Bacillus subtilis: evidence for two distinct pathways mediating carbon catabolite repression. Krüger, S., Gertz, S., Hecker, M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence for the transfer of Eubacterium aerofaciens to the genus Collinsella as Collinsella aerofaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. Kageyama, A., Benno, Y., Nakase, T. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Modification of sorbitol MacConkey medium containing cefixime and tellurite for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts. Fujisawa, T., Sata, S., Aikawa, K., Takahashi, T., Yamai, S., Shimada, T. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Cryptic operon for beta-glucoside metabolism in Escherichia coli K12: genetic evidence for a regulatory protein. Defez, R., De Felice, M. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of the Escherichia coli K-12 ybhE gene as pgl, encoding 6-phosphogluconolactonase. Thomason, L.C., Court, D.L., Datta, A.R., Khanna, R., Rosner, J.L. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Polyphasic analysis indicates that Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius and Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salicinius do not merit separate subspecies status. Li, Y., Raftis, E., Canchaya, C., Fitzgerald, G.F., van Sinderen, D., O'toole, P.W. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. A single V317A or V317M substitution in Enzyme II of a newly identified beta-glucoside phosphotransferase and utilization system of Corynebacterium glutamicum R extends its specificity towards cellobiose. Kotrba, P., Inui, M., Yukawa, H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Variation in Growth and Secondary Phenolics Among Field-Cultivated Clones of Salix myrsinifolia. Julkunen-Tiitto, R., Meier, B. Planta Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. The permeability property of the outer membrane of Bacteroides fragilis, a strictly anaerobic opportunistic pathogen. Kobayashi, Y., Nakae, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduction of erythrocyte membrane permeability and protein binding of low-molecular-weight drugs following glycoside derivitization. Matsumoto, Y., Ohsako, M., Takadate, A., Goto, S. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. The antagonism by anti-inflammatory analgesics of prostaglandin f 2 alpha-induced contractions of human and rabbit myometrium in vitro. Smith, I.D., Temple, D.M., Shearman, R.P. Prostaglandins (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. The bvr locus of Listeria monocytogenes mediates virulence gene repression by beta-glucosides. Brehm, K., Ripio, M.T., Kreft, J., Vázquez-Boland, J.A. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of Minitek and conventional methods for the biochemical characterization of oral streptococci. Setterstrom, J.A., Gross, A., Stanko, R.S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment of low back pain with a herbal or synthetic anti-rheumatic: a randomized controlled study. Willow bark extract for low back pain. Chrubasik, S., Künzel, O., Model, A., Conradt, C., Black, A. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand. Huys, G., Pearson, M., Kämpfer, P., Denys, R., Cnockaert, M., Inglis, V., Swings, J. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Monitoring carbohydrate enzymatic reactions by quantitative in vitro microdialysis. Modi, S.J., LaCourse, W.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Adaptive evolution that requires multiple spontaneous mutations. I. Mutations involving an insertion sequence. Hall, B.G. Genetics (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Cellobiose metabolism in Erwinia: genetic study. Barras, F., Chambost, J.P., Chippaux, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Efficacy and safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials. Biegert, C., Wagner, I., Lüdtke, R., Kötter, I., Lohmüller, C., Günaydin, I., Taxis, K., Heide, L. J. Rheumatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. A luxAB transcriptional fusion to the cryptic celF gene of Escherichia coli displays increased luminescence in the presence of nickel. Guzzo, A., DuBow, M.S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review. Gagnier, J.J., van Tulder, M.W., Berman, B., Bombardier, C. Spine (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Pharmacokinetics of salicin after oral administration of a standardised willow bark extract. Schmid, B., Kötter, I., Heide, L. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Determination of salicin and related compounds in botanical dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Luo, W., Ang, C.Y., Schmitt, T.C., Betz, J.M. Journal of AOAC International. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Affinity chromatographic purification of beta-glucosidase of Candida gulliermondii. Roth, W.W., Srinivasan, V.R. Prep. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities