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Chemical Compound Review

Tracrium     benzenesulfonate; 5-[3-[1-[(3,4...

Synonyms: LETROZOLEX, PubChem3018, Tracrium (TN), BW-33A, CHEBI:2915, ...
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Disease relevance of Atracurium

  • Determination of continuous atracurium infusion rate in dogs undergoing whole-body hyperthermia [1].
  • Many practitioners have thus chosen to use atracurium instead of longer-acting neuromuscular blockers when muscle relaxation is required in the supportive management of critically ill patients [2].
  • In conclusion, corticosteroid-treated patients with severe asthma who undergo prolonged neuromuscular paralysis are at significant risk for the development of muscle weakness, and the risk of weakness is not reduced by use of atracurium [3].
  • Influence of extreme obesity on the body disposition and neuromuscular blocking effect of atracurium [4].
  • We here report a case of prolonged paresis after the administration of atracurium [2].

Psychiatry related information on Atracurium


High impact information on Atracurium


Chemical compound and disease context of Atracurium


Biological context of Atracurium


Anatomical context of Atracurium

  • To determine the influence of sampling site on atracurium pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships, blood was drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and peripheral vein during a 20-minute period after injection of atracurium, 0.2 mg/kg, in eight patients [9].
  • While monitoring the thenar EMG response to ulnar nerve stimulation, the authors gave either 105, 150, 210, or 300 micrograms/kg of atracurium to 60 patients [19].
  • At 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 days after injury, rats were anesthetized and ventilated and the strength of contraction of their gastrocnemius produced by supramaximal stimulation of the sciatic nerve was measured before and after a bolus of atracurium (2.0 mg/kg) was administered [18].
  • Adding atracurium to a propofol-fentanyl induction regimen significantly improved the quality of tracheal intubation and decreased postoperative hoarseness and vocal cord sequelae [20].
  • The authors conclude that atracurium in doses which produce adequate skeletal muscle relaxation during steady-state enflurane anesthesia produces no clinically significant alteration in hemodynamic variables [21].

Associations of Atracurium with other chemical compounds

  • Increasing UV/MV with longer drug injection to delivery intervals have been demonstrated for drugs with a high molecular weight, such as atracurium, but not for those with a low molecular weight, such as vecuronium, while conflicting results have been reported for pancuronium [22].
  • The pharmacokinetics of atracurium, laudanosine and the quaternary alcohol were studied in patients with normal and impaired renal function following intravenous administration of atracurium [23].
  • Cisatracurium besilate, one of the 10 stereoisomers that comprise atracurium besilate, is a nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking agent with an intermediate duration of action [24].
  • 2. Following nasotracheal intubation and ventilation (oxygen saturation, O2,Sat, 98-100% and end-tidal CO2, PET,CO2, 30-40 mmHg), total neuromuscular blockade was induced by a rapid injection of atracurium (> 2.5 mg kg-1) and complete paralysis was maintained with an infusion (5 mg (kg h)-1) [25].
  • When anesthetic conditions and mechanical ventilation were stable, patients were randomly given 0.5 mg/kg atracurium or 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium over 5-10 s, and a blinded observer recorded cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cutaneous signs of adverse reactions for 6 min [26].

Gene context of Atracurium

  • In conclusion, TIVA with propofol, sufentanil and atracurium does not seem to have a significant effect on IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma release [27].
  • Combined H1 and H2 receptor blockade attenuates the cardiovascular effects of high-dose atracurium for rapid sequence endotracheal intubation [28].
  • As part of departmental quality assurance, we examined the degree of postoperative residual curarization (PORC) following atracurium [29].
  • After atracurium, time50-75% was shortened by the tetanic stimulation from a control of 6.3 +/- 1.1 to 5.0 +/- 1.3 min (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[30]
  • In an effort to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for the resistance to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, the density of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were determined in rats following a 30% total body surface thermal injury at a time when resistance to atracurium is maximum [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Atracurium


  1. Determination of continuous atracurium infusion rate in dogs undergoing whole-body hyperthermia. Meyer, R.E., Page, R.L., Thrall, D.E., Dewhirst, M.W., Vose, D.L. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Prolonged weakness after the withdrawal of atracurium. Manthous, C.A., Chatila, W. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Muscle weakness in mechanically ventilated patients with severe asthma. Leatherman, J.W., Fluegel, W.L., David, W.S., Davies, S.F., Iber, C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Influence of extreme obesity on the body disposition and neuromuscular blocking effect of atracurium. Varin, F., Ducharme, J., Théorêt, Y., Besner, J.G., Bevan, D.R., Donati, F. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Anaesthesia, atracurium and Huntington's chorea. Harris, M.N. Anaesthesia. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of atracurium and succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with atypical plasma cholinesterase. Hickey, D.R., O'Connor, J.P., Donati, F. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of train-of-four and best clinical assessment during continuous paralysis. Strange, C., Vaughan, L., Franklin, C., Johnson, J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic susceptibility to atracurium-induced bronchoconstriction. Levitt, R.C., Ewart, S.L. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atracurium obtained with arterial and venous blood samples. Donati, F., Varin, F., Ducharme, J., Gill, S.S., Théorêt, Y., Bevan, D.R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of cisatracurium (51W89) and atracurium by infusion in critically ill patients. Newman, P.J., Quinn, A.C., Grounds, R.M., Hunter, J.M., Boyd, A.H., Eastwood, N.B., Pollard, B.J., Pearson, A.J., Harper, N.J., Beale, R.J., Sutjarittam, M., Elliot, J.M., Bion, J.F. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atracurium in patients with and without renal failure. Fahey, M.R., Rupp, S.M., Fisher, D.M., Miller, R.D., Sharma, M., Canfell, C., Castagnoli, K., Hennis, P.J. Anesthesiology (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Laudanosine does not displace receptor-specific ligands from the benzodiazepinergic or muscarinic receptors. Katz, Y., Gavish, M. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of the neuromuscular recovery after paralysis with atracurium versus vecuronium in an ICU patient with renal insufficiency. Prielipp, R.C., Jackson, M.J., Coursin, D.B. Anesth. Analg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of atracurium and pancuronium in mechanically ventilated neonates. Piotrowski, A. Intensive care medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. New intravenous anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking drugs. A review of their properties and clinical use. Reilly, C.S., Nimmo, W.S. Drugs (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. The cardiovascular effects and histamine-releasing properties of 51W89 in patients receiving nitrous oxide/opioid/barbiturate anesthesia. Lien, C.A., Belmont, M.R., Abalos, A., Eppich, L., Quessy, S., Abou-Donia, M.M., Savarese, J.J. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical pharmacology of vecuronium and atracurium. Miller, R.D., Rupp, S.M., Fisher, D.M., Cronnelly, R., Fahey, M.R., Sohn, Y.J. Anesthesiology (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Resistance to atracurium in thermally injured rats. The roles of time, activity, and pharmacodynamics. Pavlin, E.G., Haschke, R.H., Marathe, P., Slattery, J.T., Howard, M.L., Butler, S.H. Anesthesiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Two-dose technique to create an individual dose-response curve for atracurium. Meretoja, O.A., Wirtavuori, K. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Laryngeal morbidity and quality of tracheal intubation: a randomized controlled trial. Mencke, T., Echternach, M., Kleinschmidt, S., Lux, P., Barth, V., Plinkert, P.K., Fuchs-Buder, T. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Systemic vascular responses to atracurium during enflurane-nitrous-oxide anesthesia in humans. Hilgenberg, J.C., Stoelting, R.K., Harris, W.A. Anesthesiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Clinical pharmacokinetics of neuromuscular relaxants in pregnancy. Guay, J., Grenier, Y., Varin, F. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Pharmacokinetics and neuromuscular blocking effects of atracurium besylate and two of its metabolites in patients with normal and impaired renal function. Vandenbrom, R.H., Wierda, J.M., Agoston, S. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical pharmacokinetics of cisatracurium besilate. Kisor, D.F., Schmith, V.D. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Respiratory sensations, cardiovascular control, kinaesthesia and transcranial stimulation during paralysis in humans. Gandevia, S.C., Killian, K., McKenzie, D.K., Crawford, M., Allen, G.M., Gorman, R.B., Hales, J.P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Atracurium versus vecuronium in asthmatic patients. A blinded, randomized comparison of adverse events. Caldwell, J.E., Lau, M., Fisher, D.M. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. The effect of anaesthesia and surgery on plasma cytokine production. Helmy, S.A., Wahby, M.A., El-Nawaway, M. Anaesthesia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Combined H1 and H2 receptor blockade attenuates the cardiovascular effects of high-dose atracurium for rapid sequence endotracheal intubation. Hosking, M.P., Lennon, R.L., Gronert, G.A. Anesth. Analg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Atracurium is associated with postoperative residual curarization. McCaul, C., Tobin, E., Boylan, J.F., McShane, A.J. British journal of anaesthesia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Tetanus-induced changes in apparent recovery after bolus doses of atracurium or vecuronium. Brull, S.J., Silverman, D.G. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Acetylcholine receptor density and acetylcholinesterase activity in skeletal muscle of rats following thermal injury. Marathe, P.H., Haschke, R.H., Slattery, J.T., Zucker, J.R., Pavlin, E.G. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Plasma concentrations of laudanosine, but not of atracurium, are increased during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation in pigs. Pittet, J.F., Tassonyi, E., Schopfer, C., Morel, D.R., Mentha, G., Fathi, M., Le Coultre, C., Steinig, D.A., Benakis, A. Anesthesiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Systemic inflammation leads to resistance to atracurium without increasing membrane expression of acetylcholine receptors. Fink, H., Luppa, P., Mayer, B., Rosenbrock, H., Metzger, J., Martyn, J.A., Blobner, M. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Laudanosine and atracurium concentrations in a patient receiving long-term atracurium infusion. Grigore, A.M., Brusco, L., Kuroda, M., Koorn, R. Crit. Care Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of neuromuscular blocking agents on excitatory transmission and gamma-aminobutyric acidA-mediated inhibition in the rat hippocampal slice. Chiodini, F.C., Tassonyi, E., Fuchs-Buder, T., Fathi, M., Bertrand, D., Muller, D. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
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