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Chemical Compound Review

Romurtida     (2R)-2-[[(4R)-4-[[(2S)-2- [[(2R)-2-[(3R,4R...

Synonyms: romurtide, Muroctasin, Romurtidum, Nopia, MDP-lys(L18), ...
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Disease relevance of romurtide

  • These results indicate a possible therapeutic potential of romurtide in the management of thrombocytopenia associated with myelosuppression [1].
  • Synergistic effects of romurtide and cefmenoxime against experimental Klebsiella pneumonia in mice [2].
  • The leukocytosis followed by the elevations of colony stimulating activity in serum and the colony forming unit of granulocyte-macrophage (c.f.u.-GM) in femoral bone marrow was observed as successive event in mice treated orally with romurtide [3].
  • The cytostatic activity of MA that had been primed with rMuIFN-gamma against Lewis lung adenocarcinoma cells was augmented extensively by exposure to MDP-Lys(L18) for a minimum of 15 min, though such treatment in the reverse sequence interfered with the effects of rMuIFN-gamma on MA [4].
  • Effect of MDP-Lys(L18), a derivative of MDP, on enhancing host resistance against Hantaan virus infection in newborn mice [5].

High impact information on romurtide


Chemical compound and disease context of romurtide


Biological context of romurtide


Anatomical context of romurtide


Associations of romurtide with other chemical compounds

  • These effects were observed only when MDP-Lys(L18) treatment occurred after cyclophosphamide injection or X-ray irradiation [14].
  • These findings suggest that romurtide can augment the host defense system by both the parenteral and oral route, and indicate the possibility of a new type of anti-tumor therapy to induce TNF-alpha in the tumor region [15].

Gene context of romurtide

  • Dose-response study indicated that romurtide was far more potent than MDP in induction of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF [11].
  • Although the magnitude of the IL-1 and IL-6 induction was almost the same, that of TNF induction was greater in romurtide-stimulated monocytes than in MDP-stimulated cells [11].
  • Both MDP and romurtide stimulated the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) [11].
  • G-CSF is an active hematopoietic growth factor specific for cells of a neutrophilic lineage, and muroctasin was found to significantly augment the G-CSF production from PBMC in vitro (P less than 0.01) [16].
  • Both MDP-Lys(L18) and GM-CSF were effective for the protection against HSV infection in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of romurtide


  1. Enhancement of platelet recovery in X-irradiated guinea pigs by romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative. Namba, K., Otani, T., Osada, Y. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Synergistic effects of romurtide and cefmenoxime against experimental Klebsiella pneumonia in mice. Tatara, O., Nakahama, C., Niki, Y. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral application of romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative, stimulates nonspecific resistance to microbial infections and hematopoiesis in mice. Namba, K., Nakajima, R., Otani, T., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Augmentation by priming with interferon-gamma of the binding of a muramyl dipeptide derivative to macrophages resulting in synergistic macrophage activation. Nagao, S., Sato, K., Osada, Y. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of MDP-Lys(L18), a derivative of MDP, on enhancing host resistance against Hantaan virus infection in newborn mice. Yoo, Y.C., Yoshimatsu, K., Hatsuse, R., Tamura, M., Yoshida, R., Tono-oka, S., Arikawa, J., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. Maekawa, Y., Anzai, T., Yoshikawa, T., Sugano, Y., Mahara, K., Kohno, T., Takahashi, T., Ogawa, S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhancing activity of mycobacterial cell-derived adjuvants on immunogenicity of recombinant human hepatitis B virus vaccine. Koike, Y., Yoo, Y.C., Mitobe, M., Oka, T., Okuma, K., Tono-oka, S., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of N alpha-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-N epsilon-stearoyl- L-lysine on resistance to herpes simplex virus type-1 infection in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Ishihara, C., Iida, J., Mizukoshi, N., Yamamoto, N., Yamamoto, K., Kato, K., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative, accelerates peripheral platelet recovery in nonhuman primate chemotherapy model. Namba, K., Nitanai, H., Otani, T., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Mucosal and systemic immune responses in BALB/c mice to Bacteroides gingivalis fimbriae administered orally. Ogawa, T., Shimauchi, H., Hamada, S. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Differences in interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor and IL-1 receptor antagonist production by human monocytes stimulated with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and its stearoyl derivative, romurtide. Suzuki, K., Torii, K., Hida, S., Hayashi, H., Hiyama, Y., Oomoto, Y., Takii, T., Chiba, T., Onozaki, K. Immunopharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Romurtide, a synthetic muramyl dipeptide derivative, promotes megakaryocytopoiesis through stimulation of cytokine production in nonhuman primates with myelosuppression. Namba, K., Yamamura, E., Nitanai, H., Otani, T., Azuma, I. Vaccine (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Synergistic induction of cytotoxicity in macrophages by murine interferon-gamma and biological response modifiers derived from microorganisms. Nagao, S., Sato, K., Osada, Y. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Beneficial effect of muroctasin on experimental leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide or irradiation in mice. Nakajima, R., Ishida, Y., Yamaguchi, F., Otani, T., Ono, Y., Nomura, M., Une, T., Osada, Y. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in solid tumor region by the orally administered synthetic muramyl dipeptide analogue, romurtide. Ueda, H., Yamazaki, M. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Muroctasin [MDP-Lys(18)] augments the production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Shimoda, K., Okamura, S., Kawasaki, C., Omori, F., Matsuguchi, T., Niho, Y. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulation of host-defense mechanism with synthetic adjuvants and recombinant cytokines against viral infection in mice. Azuma, I., Ishihara, C., Iida, J., Yoo, Y.C., Yoshimatsu, K., Arikawa, J. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacological aspects of arthritis induced by a muramyl dipeptide analogue in rats. Sugawara, T., Kato, M., Furuhama, K., Takada, S., Takayama, S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Review: inducer of cytokines in vivo: overview of field and romurtide experience. Azuma, I. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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