The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Csf2  -  colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CSF, Colony-stimulating factor, Csfgm, GM-CSF, Gm-csf, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Csf2


Psychiatry related information on Csf2

  • Together, these results indicate that GM-CSF treatment has previously unrecognized effects in promoting alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and that these salutary effects may be particularly relevant in the setting of chronic alcohol abuse [4].
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modulates rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep in rats [5].
  • RESULTS: CSF norepinephrine concentration was significantly higher in the patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease (mean = 279 pg/ml, SD = 122) than in those with mild to moderate severity (mean = 198 pg/ml, SD = 89), normal older subjects (mean = 219 pg/ml, SD = 88), or normal young subjects (mean = 154 pg/ml, SD = 53) [6].
  • The concentration of sICAM-5 correlated with the performance in the immediate recall task (p = 0.013) and with the leukocyte count in the CSF (p = 0.02), especially in cases caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) (r = 0.94; p = 0.002) [7].
  • HLA DQB1*0602 positive narcoleptic subjects with cataplexy have CSF lgG reactive to rat hypothalamic protein extract [8].

High impact information on Csf2


Chemical compound and disease context of Csf2


Biological context of Csf2


Anatomical context of Csf2

  • These findings suggest that elevated MCP-1 and GM-CSF may associate with the migration and proliferation of monocytes/macrophages in EAM [1].
  • Thus, we evaluated levels of MCP-1 and GM-CSF mRNA in the myocardium of EAM in rats using a real time quantitative PCR method [1].
  • Thus, in neonate rats and, to a lesser extent, in adult rats, cultured CP stroma cells form large colonies of macrophages, in response to M-CSF or GM-CSF, while, under the same conditions, peripheral blood monocytes do not [20].
  • In addition, under GM-CSF treatment, free-floating colonies of CD11c(+) monocytic cells are generated which, when restimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4, differentiate into OX62(+)/MHC class II(+) dendritic cells [20].
  • Peritoneal macrophages (PM) also migrated in response to AEC-CM and each of the recombinant cytokines; however, AM were much more sensitive to AEC-CM, RANTES, and GM-CSF than were PM [21].

Associations of Csf2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Csf2


Other interactions of Csf2

  • Thus, MCP-1 and GM-CSF may play an important role in the progression of EAM [1].
  • Fibroblasts under basal culture conditions express much higher levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF compared with AMs [29].
  • AMs isolated after intratracheal instillation of silica up-regulated mRNA levels of four additional genes [granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1beta, IL-10, and inducible nitric oxide synthase] [29].
  • Direct injection of 5 pmol ET-1 into the SFO resulted in a 20 +/- 3 mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (+/- SE) and a 14.1 +/- 0.3 pg/ml increase in the mean plasma AVP level (+/- SE) (P < 0.001 vs. artificial CSF) that was blocked by selective ET(A) inhibition [30].
  • Electron microscopic examination established that a significant proportion of fibroblastic cell in GM-CSF-, IL-1-alpha- or TGF-beta-treated animals were typical myofibroblasts [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Csf2


  1. Levels of MCP-1 and GM-CSF mRNA correlated with inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats. Kobayashi, Y., Kubo, A., Iwano, M., Sakaguchi, Y., Samejima, K., Kyoda, Y., Yonemasu, K., Hashimoto, T. Autoimmunity (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. GM-CSF action in the CNS decreases food intake and body weight. Reed, J.A., Clegg, D.J., Smith, K.B., Tolod-Richer, E.G., Matter, E.K., Picard, L.S., Seeley, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. Maekawa, Y., Anzai, T., Yoshikawa, T., Sugano, Y., Mahara, K., Kohno, T., Takahashi, T., Ogawa, S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment improves alveolar epithelial barrier function in alcoholic rat lung. Pelaez, A., Bechara, R.I., Joshi, P.C., Brown, L.A., Guidot, D.M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modulates rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep in rats. Kimura, M., Kodama, T., Aguila, M.C., Zhang, S.Q., Inoue, S. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of Alzheimer's disease severity on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine concentration. Elrod, R., Peskind, E.R., DiGiacomo, L., Brodkin, K.I., Veith, R.C., Raskind, M.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Release of soluble ICAM-5, a neuronal adhesion molecule, in acute encephalitis. Lindsberg, P.J., Launes, J., Tian, L., Välimaa, H., Subramanian, V., Sirén, J., Hokkanen, L., Hyypiä, T., Carpén, O., Gahmberg, C.G. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. HLA DQB1*0602 positive narcoleptic subjects with cataplexy have CSF lgG reactive to rat hypothalamic protein extract. Black, J.L., Avula, R.K., Walker, D.L., Silber, M.H., Krahn, L.E., Pankratz, V.S., Fredrickson, P.A., Slocumb, N.L. Sleep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Idiotype/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fusion protein as a vaccine for B-cell lymphoma. Tao, M.H., Levy, R. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Neurotensin blocks certain amphetamine-induced behaviours. Ervin, G.N., Birkemo, L.S., Nemeroff, C.B., Prange, A.J. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Combined suicide and cytokine gene therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lechanteur, C., Delvenne, P., Princen, F., Lopez, M., Fillet, G., Gielen, J., Merville, M.P., Bours, V. Gut (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased CSF glutamate following injection of ALS immunoglobulins. La Bella, V., Goodman, J.C., Appel, S.H. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Axon function persists during anoxia in mammalian white matter. Tekkök, S.B., Brown, A.M., Ransom, B.R. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Triphasic response of rat intracerebral arterioles to increasing concentrations of vasopressin in vitro. Takayasu, M., Kajita, Y., Suzuki, Y., Shibuya, M., Sugita, K., Ishikawa, T., Hidaka, H. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide sequence of the Lewis rat granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Smith, L.R., Lundeen, K.A., Dively, J.P., Carlo, D.J., Brostoff, S.W. Immunogenetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of GM-CSF in Paneth cells using single-cell RT-PCR. Fukuzawa, H., Sawada, M., Kayahara, T., Morita-Fujisawa, Y., Suzuki, K., Seno, H., Takaishi, S., Chiba, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of a high-affinity granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor on primary rat oligodendrocytes. Baldwin, G.C., Benveniste, E.N., Chung, G.Y., Gasson, J.C., Golde, D.W. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: an effective adjuvant for protein and peptide-based vaccines. Disis, M.L., Bernhard, H., Shiota, F.M., Hand, S.L., Gralow, J.R., Huseby, E.S., Gillis, S., Cheever, M.A. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA stabilization enhances transgenic expression in normal cells and tissues. Rajagopalan, L.E., Burkholder, J.K., Turner, J., Culp, J., Yang, N.S., Malter, J.S. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Rat choroid plexuses contain myeloid progenitors capable of differentiation toward macrophage or dendritic cell phenotypes. Nataf, S., Strazielle, N., Hatterer, E., Mouchiroud, G., Belin, M.F., Ghersi-Egea, J.F. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Chemotaxis of alveolar macrophages in response to signals derived from alveolar epithelial cells. O'Brien, A.D., Standiford, T.J., Christensen, P.J., Wilcoxen, S.E., Paine, R. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulates activity of the nervous system. Lukashenko, P.V., Lukashenko, T.M., Savanovich, I.I., Sandakov, D.B., Gerein, V. Neuroimmunomodulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Thiethylperazine; clinical antipsychotic efficacy and correlation with potency in predictive systems. Rotrosen, J., Angrist, B.M., Gershon, S., Aronson, M., Gruen, P., Sachar, E.J., Denning, R.K., Matthysse, S., Stanley, M., Wilk, S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Synaptic vesicular localization and exocytosis of L-aspartate in excitatory nerve terminals: a quantitative immunogold analysis in rat hippocampus. Gundersen, V., Chaudhry, F.A., Bjaalie, J.G., Fonnum, F., Ottersen, O.P., Storm-Mathisen, J. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential effects of macrophage- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors on cytokine gene expression during rat alveolar macrophage differentiation into multinucleated giant cells (MGC): role for IL-6 in type 2 MGC formation. Lemaire, I., Yang, H., Lafont, V., Dornand, J., Commes, T., Cantin, M.F. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Signal transduction pathways induced by GM-CSF in microglia: significance in the control of proliferation. Liva, S.M., Kahn, M.A., Dopp, J.M., de Vellis, J. Glia (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Chronically stimulated microglial cells do no longer alter their immune functions in response to the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Magnus, T., Korn, T., Jung, S. J. Neuroimmunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Analysis of megakaryocyte ploidy in rat bone marrow cultures. Kuter, D.J., Greenberg, S.M., Rosenberg, R.D. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. The sources of inflammatory mediators in the lung after silica exposure. Rao, K.M., Porter, D.W., Meighan, T., Castranova, V. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Aminopropionic acid receptors in paraventricular nucleus mediate pressor and vasopressin responses to endothelin-1 in subfornical organ. Rossi, N.F., Chen, H. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Locally applied GM-CSF induces the accumulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin containing myofibroblasts. Rubbia-Brandt, L., Sappino, A.P., Gabbiani, G. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor promotes follicular development in the newborn rat in vivo. Wang, H., Wen, Y., Polan, M.L., Boostanfar, R., Feinman, M., Behr, B. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Prevention of hepatic tumor metastases in rats with herpes viral vaccines and gamma-interferon. Karpoff, H.M., D'Angelica, M., Blair, S., Brownlee, M.D., Federoff, H., Fong, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities