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Chemical Compound Review

Topmax     4-[3-[[2-hydroxy-2-(4- hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]...

Synonyms: RACTOPAMINE, Ractopamina, Ractopaminum, Paylean 9, Optaflexx 45, ...
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Disease relevance of Ractopamine hydrochloride

  • The growth rate for Salmonella Choleraesuis was increased with the addition of 2.0 mug ractopamine/ml compared with the other concentrations examined [1].
  • Ractopamine, administered to sheep before and after oral inoculation with E. coli O157:H7, increased (P < 0.01) fecal shedding and tended to increase (P = 0.08) cecal populations of the challenge strain [1].
  • Ractopamine increased (P < .05) feed intake (d 1 to 6); body weight; carcass CP; and intake, apparent absorption, retention, and retained:intake ratio of CP on d 1 to 6 of the study [2].
  • Ractopamine HCl increased weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization when administered i.p. to rats, but not when administered orally [3].
  • Additional supplementation of ractopamine hydrochloride for 6 weeks resulted in a tendency for increased weight loss [4].

High impact information on Ractopamine hydrochloride


Biological context of Ractopamine hydrochloride

  • Competition analysis using the tritiated antagonist dihydroalprenolol revealed receptor affinity for five structurally different beta-agonists, with IC50 values ranging from 2.1 +/- 0.76 x 10(-7) M for salmeterol to 1.1 +/- 0.62 x 10(-5) M for ractopamine [8].
  • Because ractopamine metabolism has not been evaluated in turkeys, the objectives of this study were to synthesize and identify products of ractopamine metabolism and to determine the stereoselective metabolism and tissue distribution of [14C]ractopamine HCl in orally dosed turkey poults [9].
  • No genotype x ractopamine interactions for the criteria described above were detected (P greater than .05) [10].
  • After the hydrolysis of conjugates, ractopamine concentrations were 5,272+/-1,361 ppb on withdrawal d 0 and 178+/-78 ppb on withdrawal d 7 [11].
  • Pigs with no added ractopamine demonstrated increased lean tissue accretion and improved efficiency and decreased fat tissue accretion with increasing energy intake (up to 9.5 Mcal of ME intake for barrows and 8.9 Mcal of ME intake for gilts) [12].

Anatomical context of Ractopamine hydrochloride

  • These results indicate that ractopamine-enhanced ELC5 myotube protein accretion is mediated, at least in part, by stimulating cellular protein synthesis [13].
  • Ractopamine (10(-6) mol/L) increased [35S]methionine incorporation (apparent protein synthesis) at 24 h (p less than 0.01), 48 h (p less than 0.05), 72 h (p less than 0.01) and 96 h (p less than 0.05) in cultured ELC5 muscle cells [13].
  • Disposition of ractopamine residues in liver and pigmented retinal epithelium was determined in animals slaughtered with withdrawal periods of 0, 3, and 7 days [14].
  • Therefore, we determined the betaAR subtypes that mediate the lipolytic response to ractopamine in swine adipocytes [15].
  • Ractopamine completely relaxed the KCl-contracted guinea-pig trachea and rat costo-uterine smooth muscle to their resting tensions (EC50 = 3 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively), indicative of full beta 2-agonist properties [16].

Associations of Ractopamine hydrochloride with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ractopamine hydrochloride


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ractopamine hydrochloride

  • We used the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp approach in five multicatheterized beef steers to evaluate insulin sensitivity (ED50) and responsiveness (Rmax or Rmin) during control or ractopamine feeding (80 mg/kg feed) [6].
  • Liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometric analysis of incurred ractopamine residues in livestock tissues [14].
  • Evaluation of ractopamine cross-reactivity in several commercially available beta-agonist enzyme immunoassay kits [24].
  • A Testing Components Corporation enzyme-linked imunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for ractopamine displayed linear response between 1.0 and 100 ng/mL with an I-50 of 10 ng/mL and an effective screening limit of detection of 50 ng/mL [25].
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the determination of ractopamine (LY031537) in monkey plasma and swine serum [26].


  1. Effects of ractopamine HCl on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in vitro and on intestinal populations and fecal shedding in experimentally infected sheep and pigs. Edrington, T.S., Callaway, T.R., Smith, D.J., Genovese, K.J., Anderson, R.C., Nisbet, D.J. Curr. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of ractopamine HCl stereoisomers on growth, nitrogen retention, and carcass composition in rats. Ricke, E.A., Smith, D.J., Feil, V.J., Larsen, G.L., Caton, J.S. J. Anim. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth characteristics of rats receiving ractopamine hydrochloride and the metabolic disposition of ractopamine hydrochloride after oral or intraperitoneal administration. Smith, D.J., Paulson, G.D. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Modulation of leptin, insulin, and growth hormone in obese pony mares under chronic nutritional restriction and supplementation with ractopamine hydrochloride. Buff, P.R., Johnson, P.J., Wiedmeyer, C.E., Ganjam, V.K., Messer Iv, N.T., Keisler, D.H. Vet. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Skeletal muscle alpha-actin synthesis is increased pretranslationally in pigs fed the phenethanolamine ractopamine. Helferich, W.G., Jump, D.B., Anderson, D.B., Skjaerlund, D.M., Merkel, R.A., Bergen, W.G. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Change in insulin sensitivity or responsiveness is not a major component of the mechanism of action of ractopamine in beef steers. Eisemann, J.H., Bristol, D.G. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabolic responses induced by isoproterenol in ractopamine-fed pigs. Adeola, O., McBride, B.W., Young, L.G. J. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The preparation, solubilisation and binding characteristics of a beta 2-adrenoceptor isolated from transfected Chinese hamster cells. Meenagh, S.A., Elliott, C.T., Buick, R.K., Izeboud, C.A., Witkamp, R.F. The Analyst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Metabolism and disposition of ractopamine hydrochloride by turkey poults. Smith, D.J., Feil, V.J., Huwe, J.K., Paulson, G.D. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of ractopamine on genetically obese and lean pigs. Yen, J.T., Mersmann, H.J., Hill, D.A., Pond, W.G. J. Anim. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Tissue residues of ractopamine and urinary excretion of ractopamine and metabolites in animals treated for 7 days with dietary ractopamine. Smith, D.J., Shelver, W.L. J. Anim. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The impact of ractopamine, energy intake, and dietary fat on finisher pig growth performance and carcass merit. Williams, N.H., Cline, T.R., Schinckel, A.P., Jones, D.J. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Ractopamine increases total and myofibrillar protein synthesis in cultured rat myotubes. Anderson, P.T., Helferich, W.G., Parkhill, L.C., Merkel, R.A., Bergen, W.G. J. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometric analysis of incurred ractopamine residues in livestock tissues. Churchwell, M.I., Holder, C.L., Little, D., Preece, S., Smith, D.J., Doerge, D.R. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes that mediate ractopamine stimulation of lipolysis. Mills, S.E., Spurlock, M.E., Smith, D.J. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Beta-adrenoceptor profile of ractopamine HCl in isolated smooth and cardiac muscle tissues of rat and guinea-pig. Colbert, W.E., Williams, P.D., Williams, G.D. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Determination of the affinity of ractopamine and clenbuterol for the beta-adrenoceptor of the porcine adipocyte. Liu, C.Y., Mills, S.E. J. Anim. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of phenethanolamines and propranolol on the proliferation of cultured chick breast muscle satellite cells. Grant, A.L., Helferich, W.G., Merkel, R.A., Bergen, W.G. J. Anim. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of ractopamine hydrochloride in swine and turkey tissues by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. Turberg, M.P., Macy, T.D., Lewis, J.J., Coleman, M.R. Journal of AOAC International. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. beta-Adrenergic receptor agonists increase apoptosis of adipose tissue in mice. Page, K.A., Hartzell, D.L., Li, C., Westby, A.L., Della-Fera, M.A., Azain, M.J., Pringle, T.D., Baile, C.A. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Technologies for the control of fat and lean deposition in livestock. Sillence, M.N. Vet. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of ractopamine on growth, carcass traits, and fasting heat production of U.S. contemporary crossbred and Chinese Meishan pure- and crossbred pigs. Yen, J.T., Nienaber, J.A., Klindt, J., Crouse, J.D. J. Anim. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Ractopamine treatment biases in the prediction of pork carcass composition. Schinckel, A.P., Herr, C.T., Richert, B.T., Forrest, J.C., Einstein, M.E. J. Anim. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of ractopamine cross-reactivity in several commercially available beta-agonist enzyme immunoassay kits. Wicker, A.L., Turberg, M.P., Coleman, M.R. The Analyst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Detection and confirmation of ractopamine and its metabolites in horse urine after Paylean administration. Lehner, A.F., Hughes, C.G., Harkins, J.D., Nickerson, C., Mollett, B., Dirikolu, L., Bosken, J., Camargo, F., Boyles, J., Troppmann, A., Karpiesiuk, W.W., Woods, W.E., Tobin, T. Journal of analytical toxicology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of ractopamine in monkey plasma and swine serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Turberg, M.P., Rodewald, J.M., Coleman, M.R. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1996) [Pubmed]
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