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Chemical Compound Review

Zalaplon     N-[3-(7-cyano-1,5,9- triazabicyclo[4.3.0]no...

Synonyms: zaleplon, Sonata, Zerene, Zaleplon AP, CHEMBL1521, ...
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Disease relevance of Sonata

  • In a separate experiment, observable behavioral effects (e.g., ataxia and procumbent posture) were quantified after administration of alprazolam, zaleplon, and QH-ii-066 [1].
  • This improved risk profile includes: the effects of zaleplon on psychomotor and cognitive performance; tolerance, withdrawal and rebound; respiratory depression; sleep architecture; and other treatment-emergent adverse effects [2].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with thalassemia major had liver and myocardial T2* assessment using a Picker Edge 1.5T Scanner and a Siemens Sonata 1.5T scanner, with similar gradient echo sequences [3].
  • Real-time TrueFISP visualization of swallowing was performed in 8 volunteers and 6 patients with dysphagia using a 1.5 T scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen Germany) equipped with high-performance gradients (amplitude 40 mT/m) [4].
  • METHODS: A total of 120 subjects were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR (Sonata, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) scanner, comprising healthy volunteers (18), competitive athletes (25), patients with HCM (35), aortic stenosis (24), and hypertensive heart disease (18) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Sonata


High impact information on Sonata


Chemical compound and disease context of Sonata


Biological context of Sonata


Anatomical context of Sonata

  • The results indicate that zaleplon taken by a nursing mother is transferred through breast milk to her infant in very small quantities that are unlikely to be clinically important [21].
  • METHODS: At 1.5 T (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens), 30 symptomatic patients with 30 left internal thoracic artery grafts were examined 6 years after minimally invasive surgical intervention [22].
  • In a binding study, zaleplon displaced bound [(3)H]flunitrazepam from membrane preparations from the rat hippocampus with an IC(50) of 4,454.5 nM [23].
  • Zaleplon was 14.3 times more potent at inhibiting [3H]flunitrazepam binding to membrane preparations of the cerebellum than to membrane preparations of the spinal cord [24].
  • Thin slices (2.5mm) were acquired of the cerebellar region containing the cerebellar nuclei with high spatial resolution (matrix size 128x128x10) using a Siemens 1.5T Sonata system [25].

Associations of Sonata with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Sonata

  • Metabolism of Zaleplon by human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 isoforms [30].
  • Aldehyde oxidase-dependent marked species difference in hepatic metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic, zaleplon, between monkeys and rats [31].
  • Zaleplon-induced coma and bluish-green urine: possible antidotal effect by flumazenil [32].
  • METHODS: Study 1: two mouse groups were exposed to music continuously for 10 hours per day for 10 weeks (Group I: Mozart's Sonata K.448, Group II: Beethoven's Fur Elise) [33].
  • Metabolism of zaleplon by human liver: evidence for involvement of aldehyde oxidase [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sonata

  • Using a stethoscope, we relied on our skills in inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, as well as echocardiography and phonocardiography to diagnose a patient whose murmur was very reminiscent of the D-sharp pizzicato in the Cello Sonata in F, Opus 99, by Johannes Brahms [35].
  • Zaleplon was well tolerated in clinical trials [36].
  • This multicenter study compared the efficacy and safety of 3 doses of zaleplon with those of placebo in outpatients with DSM-III-R insomnia [8].
  • In addition, the zaleplon-induced increase in the energy of the delta frequency band was antagonized by pretreatment with flumazenil (1 mg/kg, i.v.), which did not affect the spontaneous EEG alone [24].
  • Oral administration of zaleplon and the reference drugs dose-dependently lessened the step-through latency in the test session of a passive avoidance task and increased the latency for reaching the hidden platform in the Morris water maze task, indicating the amnesic effect of the test drugs [23].


  1. Enhanced sucrose pellet consumption induced by benzodiazepine-type drugs in squirrel monkeys: role of GABAA receptor subtypes. Duke, A.N., Platt, D.M., Cook, J.M., Huang, S., Yin, W., Mattingly, B.A., Rowlett, J.K. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Benefit-risk assessment of zaleplon in the treatment of insomnia. Barbera, J., Shapiro, C. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Interscanner reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2* measurements of tissue iron in thalassemia. Westwood, M.A., Anderson, L.J., Firmin, D.N., Gatehouse, P.D., Lorenz, C.H., Wonke, B., Pennell, D.J. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Visualization of swallowing using real-time TrueFISP MR fluoroscopy. Barkhausen, J., Goyen, M., von Winterfeld, F., Lauenstein, T., Arweiler-Harbeck, D., Debatin, J.F. European radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Differentiation of athlete's heart from pathological forms of cardiac hypertrophy by means of geometric indices derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Petersen, S.E., Selvanayagam, J.B., Francis, J.M., Myerson, S.G., Wiesmann, F., Robson, M.D., Ostman-Smith, I., Casadei, B., Watkins, H., Neubauer, S. Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Insomnia in the elderly: a review for the primary care practitioner. Ancoli-Israel, S. Sleep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of the effects of zaleplon, zolpidem, and triazolam on memory, learning, and psychomotor performance. Troy, S.M., Lucki, I., Unruh, M.A., Cevallos, W.H., Leister, C.A., Martin, P.T., Furlan, P.M., Mangano, R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Sleep latency is shortened during 4 weeks of treatment with zaleplon, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. Zaleplon Clinical Study Group. Elie, R., Rüther, E., Farr, I., Emilien, G., Salinas, E. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypnotic efficacy of zaleplon for daytime sleep in rested individuals. Whitmore, J.N., Fischer, J.R., Storm, W.F. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative kinetics and dynamics of zaleplon, zolpidem, and placebo. Greenblatt, D.J., Harmatz, J.S., von Moltke, L.L., Ehrenberg, B.L., Harrel, L., Corbett, K., Counihan, M., Graf, J.A., Darwish, M., Mertzanis, P., Martin, P.T., Cevallos, W.H., Shader, R.I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of short-acting hypnosedatives: zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone. Drover, D.R. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Residual effects of middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon and zolpidem on driving ability, memory functions, and psychomotor performance. Verster, J.C., Volkerts, E.R., Schreuder, A.H., Eijken, E.J., van Heuckelum, J.H., Veldhuijzen, D.S., Verbaten, M.N., Paty, I., Darwish, M., Danjou, P., Patat, A. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Anti-conflict effects of benzodiazepines in rhesus monkeys: relationship with therapeutic doses in humans and role of GABAA receptors. Rowlett, J.K., Lelas, S., Tornatzky, W., Licata, S.C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo pharmacological characterization of indiplon, a novel pyrazolopyrimidine sedative-hypnotic. Foster, A.C., Pelleymounter, M.A., Cullen, M.J., Lewis, D., Joppa, M., Chen, T.K., Bozigian, H.P., Gross, R.S., Gogas, K.R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Impact of melatonin, zaleplon, zopiclone, and temazepam on psychomotor performance. Paul, M.A., Gray, G., Kenny, G., Pigeau, R.A. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes in GABA(A) receptor gene expression induced by withdrawal of, but not by long-term exposure to, zaleplon or zolpidem. Follesa, P., Mancuso, L., Biggio, F., Cagetti, E., Franco, M., Trapani, G., Biggio, G. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. A placebo-controlled evaluation of single, escalating doses of CL 284,846, a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic. Beer, B., Ieni, J.R., Wu, W.H., Clody, D., Amorusi, P., Rose, J., Mant, T., Gaudreault, J., Cato, A., Stern, W. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Fast gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with microscale volume sample preparation for the determination of benzodiazepines and alpha-hydroxy metabolites, zaleplon and zopiclone in whole blood. Gunnar, T., Ariniemi, K., Lillsunde, P. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinically important drug interactions with zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon. Hesse, L.M., von Moltke, L.L., Greenblatt, D.J. CNS drugs. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Further potential of the GABA receptor in the treatment of insomnia. Bateson, A.N. Sleep Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Rapid disappearance of zaleplon from breast milk after oral administration to lactating women. Darwish, M., Martin, P.T., Cevallos, W.H., Tse, S., Wheeler, S., Troy, S.M. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Assessment of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting of the left internal thoracic artery by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Stauder, N.I., Fenchel, M., Stauder, H., Küttner, A., Scheule, A.M., Kramer, U., Claussen, C.D., Miller, S. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of zaleplon on learning and memory in rats. Noguchi, H., Kitazumi, K., Mori, M., Shiba, T. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Binding and neuropharmacological profile of zaleplon, a novel nonbenzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic. Noguchi, H., Kitazumi, K., Mori, M., Shiba, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of cerebellar nuclei comparing finger, foot and tongue movements as revealed by fMRI. Dimitrova, A., de Greiff, A., Schoch, B., Gerwig, M., Frings, M., Gizewski, E.R., Timmann, D. Brain Res. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Evaluation of the discriminative stimulus effects of the novel sedative-hypnotic CL 284,846. Vanover, K.E., Barrett, J.E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of zaleplon on digoxin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Sanchez Garcia, P., Paty, I., Leister, C.A., Guerra, P., Frías, J., García Pérez, L.E., Darwish, M. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of zaleplon metabolism by cimetidine in the human liver: in vitro studies with subcellular fractions and precision-cut liver slices. Renwick, A.B., Ball, S.E., Tredger, J.M., Price, R.J., Walters, D.G., Kao, J., Scatina, J.A., Lake, B.G. Xenobiotica (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Absence of an interaction between ibuprofen and zaleplon. Sanchez Garcia, P., Carcas, A., Zapater, P., Rosendo, J., Paty, I., Leister, C.A., Troy, S.M. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Metabolism of Zaleplon by human hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 isoforms. Renwick, A.B., Mistry, H., Ball, S.E., Walters, D.G., Kao, J., Lake, B.G. Xenobiotica (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Aldehyde oxidase-dependent marked species difference in hepatic metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic, zaleplon, between monkeys and rats. Kawashima, K., Hosoi, K., Naruke, T., Shiba, T., Kitamura, M., Watabe, T. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Zaleplon-induced coma and bluish-green urine: possible antidotal effect by flumazenil. Höjer, J., Salmonson, H., Sundin, P. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Long-term enhancement of maze learning in mice via a generalized Mozart effect. Aoun, P., Jones, T., Shaw, G.L., Bodner, M. Neurol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Metabolism of zaleplon by human liver: evidence for involvement of aldehyde oxidase. Lake, B.G., Ball, S.E., Kao, J., Renwick, A.B., Price, R.J., Scatina, J.A. Xenobiotica (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Cardiopulmonary auscultation: duo for strings--Opus 99. Woywodt, A., Höfer, M., Pilz, B., Schneider, W., Dietz, R., Luft, F.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Zaleplon: a review of its use in the treatment of insomnia. Dooley, M., Plosker, G.L. Drugs (2000) [Pubmed]
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