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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Palpation

  • Tumor growth was monitored visibly, by palpation, by measuring blood glucose levels, and by death of the host from hypoglycemia caused by unregulated insulin production of the growing insulinoma [1].
  • METHODS: Four patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic plantar fasciitis, who were unresponsive to palpation guided injection with triamcinolone acetonide and local anaesthetic, underwent ultrasonographic examination of the heel [2].
  • A total of 34 patients with clinical Peyronie's disease underwent palpation, ultrasound and MRI after intracavernous injection of 10 micrograms. prostaglandin E1 [3].
  • A serum CA 125 assay provided a method of more accurately identifying a postmenopausal woman at high risk for ovarian cancer when a screening ultrasound examination revealed a 2 X 3 cm ovary that could not be detected by palpation [4].
  • Ninety-seven women, aged 18 to 53 years, with uterine leiomyomas diagnosed by bimanual palpation and ultrasonography, were treated for 4 to 13 months with gestrinone, a potent steroidal, antiestrogen, antiprogesterone [5].

High impact information on Palpation

  • Serum thyroglobulin before and after palpation of the thyroid [6].
  • METHODS: Adult male mice (C57BL/6, CRF(1)-deficient, and wild-type), fasted for 16-18 hours, were anesthetized for 10 minutes and had a midline celiotomy and cecal exteriorization and palpation for 30 or 60 seconds or no surgery (sham) [7].
  • With an increase in the amount of ascorbic acid there is a highly significant decrease in the first-order rate constant for appearance of the first spontaneous mammary tumor after the lag time to detection by palpation [8].
  • There were 2 false-positive observations with monoclonal antibody E48 and 3 with palpation [9].
  • CP levels increased 4- to 8-fold of normal during the progression of the malignant process, often before tumors could be detected by palpation [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Palpation

  • The correct diagnosis of pain related to postoperative upper rib fracture may be made by direct visualization of the fracture on supine anteroposterior radiographs, elicitation of pain by palpation of the rib or motion of the upper extremity, lack of response to nitroglycerin, and negative electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme levels [11].
  • However, only serum bilirubin level, cystic duct diameter, demonstration of common bile duct calculi on preoperative imaging or intraoperative palpation, and age at operation were independent predictors of choledocholithiasis [12].
  • The exostoses were recognized during routine dental examinations and identified by palpation, horizontal sounding, occlusal radiographs, and in one case by histologic examination [13].
  • Varicocele was diagnosed by at least two of the following methods: physical palpation during valsalva manoeuvre, venography, or scrotal scanning using the technetium pertechnetate radioactive method [14].
  • In hypogonadal patients, transrectal examination of the prostate should be performed longitudinally to monitor the biological efficacy of testosterone treatment by measuring prostate growth and, in combination with palpation and PSA measurements, to screen for prostate cancer [15].

Biological context of Palpation


Anatomical context of Palpation


Associations of Palpation with chemical compounds

  • Clinical improvement in patient rating of disease severity and in the severity of tenderness upon palpation was most apparent in the subgroup of patients who were receiving both ibuprofen and alprazolam [26].
  • Fifty-six patients (61 percent) had at least one abnormality of serum free thyroxine index, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin), or thyroid palpation [27].
  • There was a significant difference in favor of piroxicam for tenderness on palpation and time to complete relief of symptoms [28].
  • Patients received 1.8-53.0 mg mAb U36 IgG labeled with 756 +/- 95 MBq technetium-99m i.v. Preoperatively, palpation, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and RIS were performed [29].
  • Endogenous nitric oxide production was quantified by analysis of urinary nitrate excretion, and time to rejection was determined by graft palpation [30].

Gene context of Palpation

  • METHODS: Gal-/- mice received a heart graft from C57BL/6 Gal+ or H transgenic mice and additional Gal Ab and C' provided; HAR was monitored by direct observation for up to 90 min, or by palpation thereafter [31].
  • The mechanism of this effect was through an immediate post-palpation release of circulating tumor emboli detected 2-3 min after palpation (P<0.01) by human cytokeratin 19 RT-PCR of extracted RNA from 300 microl of murine blood [32].
  • Over 80% of animals treated with OP-1 developed fusion as assessed by palpation (52% by CT criteria), while only 25% of control animals fused [33].
  • This was associated with a significant decrease in ventricular contractility (palpation score 0.3 +/- 0.1 compared to 2.3 +/- 0.3 in wild-type, P < 0.0001) [34].
  • Objective findings indicating systemic lupus erythematosus arthritis were locking or dislocation, tenderness to palpation, and pain on movement of the mandible [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Palpation

  • All patients underwent an identical surgical protocol (palpation after an extensive Kocher maneuver, ultrasound during surgery, duodenal transillumination, and 3 cm duodenotomy) and postoperative assessment of disease status (fasting gastrin, secretin test imaging within 2 weeks, at 3 to 6 months, and yearly), as used in pre-SRS studies previously [36].
  • Marked elevations in serum TG occurred within 2 min after open manual palpation, diathermy, and excision [37].
  • Axillary nodal status and tumor histologic ER status, histologic grade, size, stage, and method of detection (mammography alone, palpation alone, or both palpation and mammography) were analyzed by density category and tested for statistically significant differences across categories by using analysis of variance [38].
  • Wound anesthesia, assessed by palpation of the wound 24 h after surgery by a blinded investigator, was significantly more pronounced in the group treated with lidocaine aerosol than in the control groups [39].
  • Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation [40].


  1. Secretion of CTLA4Ig by an SV40 T antigen-transformed islet cell line inhibits graft rejection against the neoantigen. Lew, A.M., Brady, J.L., Silva, A., Coligan, J.E., Georgiou, H.M. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrasound guided injection of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Kane, D., Greaney, T., Bresnihan, B., Gibney, R., FitzGerald, O. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with penile induration (Peyronie's disease). Vosshenrich, R., Schroeder-Printzen, I., Weidner, W., Fischer, U., Funke, M., Ringert, R.H. J. Urol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of CA 125 in the evaluation of palpable or enlarged postmenopausal ovaries. Schwartz, P.E. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Regression of uterine leiomyomas after treatment with gestrinone, an antiestrogen, antiprogesterone. Coutinho, E.M., Boulanger, G.A., Gonçalves, M.T. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Serum thyroglobulin before and after palpation of the thyroid. Buergi, U., Gebel, F., Maier, E., Koening, M.P., Studer, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1-deficient mice do not develop postoperative gastric ileus. Luckey, A., Wang, L., Jamieson, P.M., Basa, N.R., Million, M., Czimmer, J., Vale, W., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in RIII mice. Pauling, L., Nixon, J.C., Stitt, F., Marcuson, R., Dunham, W.B., Barth, R., Bensch, K., Herman, Z.S., Blaisdell, B.E., Tsao, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of head and neck cancer using 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody E48 F(ab')2. van Dongen, G.A., Leverstein, H., Roos, J.C., Quak, J.J., van den Brekel, M.W., van Lingen, A., Martens, H.J., Castelijns, J.A., Visser, G.W., Meijer, C.J. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Ceruloplasmin as a marker of neoplastic activity in rabbits bearing the VX-2 carcinoma. Ungar-Waron, H., Gluckman, A., Spira, E., Waron, M., Trainin, Z. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Upper rib fractures following median sternotomy. Woodring, J.H., Royer, J.M., Todd, E.P. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Prospective randomized study of routine intraoperative cholangiography during open cholecystectomy: long-term follow-up and multivariate analysis of predictors of choledocholithiasis. Hauer-Jensen, M., Karesen, R., Nygaard, K., Solheim, K., Amlie, E.J., Havig, O., Rosseland, A.R. Surgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Exostosis associated with autogenous gingival grafts: a report of 9 cases. Otero-Cagide, F.J., Singer, D.L., Hoover, J.N. J. Periodontol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of varicocele embolization versus ligation of the left internal spermatic vein for improvement of sperm quality. Yavetz, H., Levy, R., Papo, J., Yogev, L., Paz, G., Jaffa, A.J., Homonnai, Z.T. Int. J. Androl. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical relevance of scrotal and transrectal ultrasonography in andrological patients. Behre, H.M., Kliesch, S., Schädel, F., Nieschlag, E. Int. J. Androl. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Transfer of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro: survival and fetal development. Farin, P.W., Farin, C.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Asymmetric somatosensory activation with right- vs left-hand stimulation: a positron emission tomographic study. Yoshii, F., Ginsberg, M.D., Kelley, R.E., Chang, J.Y., Barker, W.W., Ingenito, G., Apicella, A.M., Globus, M.Y., Duara, R., Boothe, T.E. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Some endocrine changes associated with the post-partum period of the suckling beef cow. Rawlings, N.C., Weir, L., Todd, B., Manns, J., Hyland, J.H. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Factors affecting accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. Gowan, E.W., Etches, R.J., Bryden, C., King, G.J. J. Dairy Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of bimatoprost on ocular circulation in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Akarsu, C., Yilmaz, S., Taner, P., Ergin, A. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Prospective study of surgical resection of duodenal and pancreatic gastrinomas in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. MacFarlane, M.P., Fraker, D.L., Alexander, H.R., Norton, J.A., Lubensky, I., Jensen, R.T. Surgery (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Gallium 67 imaging in monitoring lymphoma response to treatment. Israel, O., Front, D., Lam, M., Ben-Haim, S., Kleinhaus, U., Ben-Shachar, M., Robinson, E., Kolodny, G.M. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Incomplete palmar fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone in horses: ten cases (1981-1986). Lloyd, K.C., Koblik, P., Ragle, C., Wheat, J.D., Lakritz, J. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased reproductive losses in cattle infected with bovine pestivirus around the time of insemination. McGowan, M.R., Kirkland, P.D., Richards, S.G., Littlejohns, I.R. Vet. Rec. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Induced corpora lutea in the postpartum beef cow. II. Effects of treatment with progestogen and gonadotropins. Sheffel, C.E., Pratt, B.R., Ferrell, W.L., Inskeep, E.K. J. Anim. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Treatment of primary fibrositis/fibromyalgia syndrome with ibuprofen and alprazolam. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Russell, I.J., Fletcher, E.M., Michalek, J.E., McBroom, P.C., Hester, G.G. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Risk factors for thyroid abnormalities after neck irradiation for childhood cancer. Kaplan, M.M., Garnick, M.B., Gelber, R., Li, F.P., Cassady, J.R., Sallan, S.E., Fine, W.E., Sack, M.J. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Piroxicam and naproxen in acute sports injuries. Lereim, P., Gabor, I. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Radioimmunoscintigraphy and biodistribution of technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody U36 in patients with head and neck cancer. de Bree, R., Roos, J.C., Quak, J.J., den Hollander, W., Snow, G.B., van Dongen, G.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Selective inhibition of nitric oxide production during cardiac allograft rejection causes a small increase in graft survival. Winlaw, D.S., Schyvens, C.G., Smythe, G.A., Du, Z.Y., Rainer, S.P., Lord, R.S., Spratt, P.M., Macdonald, P.S. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Fucosyl transferase (H) transgenic heart transplants to Gal-/- mice. McKenzie, I.F., Li, Y.Q., Patton, K., Sandrin, M.S. Transplantation (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Cooperative role of E-cadherin and sialyl-Lewis X/A-deficient MUC1 in the passive dissemination of tumor emboli in inflammatory breast carcinoma. Alpaugh, M.L., Tomlinson, J.S., Kasraeian, S., Barsky, S.H. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The safety of OP-1 for lumbar fusion with decompression-- a canine study. Paramore, C.G., Lauryssen, C., Rauzzino, M.J., Wadlington, V.R., Palmer, C.A., Brix, A., Cartner, S.C., Hadley, M.N. Neurosurgery (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. NOS2 mediates opposing effects in models of acute and chronic cardiac rejection: insights from NOS2-knockout mice. Koglin, J., Glysing-Jensen, T., Mudgett, J.S., Russell, M.E. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Temporomandibular joint involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. Jonsson, R., Lindvall, A.M., Nyberg, G. Arthritis Rheum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Prospective study of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and its effect on operative outcome in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Alexander, H.R., Fraker, D.L., Norton, J.A., Bartlett, D.L., Tio, L., Benjamin, S.B., Doppman, J.L., Goebel, S.U., Serrano, J., Gibril, F., Jensen, R.T. Ann. Surg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. The influence of percutaneous fine needle aspiration on serum thyroglobulin. Lever, E.G., Refetoff, S., Scherberg, N.H., Carr, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Invasive cancers detected after breast cancer screening yielded a negative result: relationship of mammographic density to tumor prognostic factors. Roubidoux, M.A., Bailey, J.E., Wray, L.A., Helvie, M.A. Radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Topical anesthesia with lidocaine aerosol in the control of postoperative pain. Sinclair, R., Cassuto, J., Högström, S., Lindén, I., Faxén, A., Hedner, T., Ekman, R. Anesthesiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  40. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia. Inskip, P.D., Hartshorne, M.F., Tekkel, M., Rahu, M., Veidebaum, T., Auvinen, A., Crooks, L.A., Littlefield, L.G., McFee, A.F., Salomaa, S., Makinen, S., Tucker, J.D., Sorensen, K.J., Bigbee, W.L., Boice, J.D. Radiat. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
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