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Chemical Compound Review

Acd solution     2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3- tricarboxylic acid;...

Synonyms: Acd-A solution, LS-173021, AC1L21TB, C6H12O6.C6H8O7, 13838-07-8, ...
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Disease relevance of Acd solution


High impact information on Acd solution

  • In six patients with suspected or known inflammatory disease, a "mixed" leucocyte suspension isolated from 85 ml blood anticoagulated with acid-citrate-dextrose was labelled by 99mTc-HMPAO with a mean efficiency of 47% (SE2%), of which 78% (3) was taken up by granulocytes [6].
  • The MAO and plasma amine oxidaze (PAO) activities obtained from blood anticoagulated with ethylenediaminetetracetate (EDTA) were significantly greater than those found when acid-citrate-dextrose was the anticoagulant [7].
  • No completely satisfactory in vitro methods have been found for separating leukocytes with completely engulfed particles from those with surface-adherent particles; nonetheless, surface adherence can be partially reversed by 20% acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution or by an excess of nonradioactive colloid [8].
  • In the first 6 h, HIV-1 RNA levels decreased by 10, 20, and 31% in EDTA, ACD, and heparin tubes, respectively [9].
  • When HES was used in only the first three passes, the subsequent three passes, done with acid-citrate-dextrose, Formula-A (ACD-A, Fenwal Laboratories, Deerfield, IL), reduced the yield to 0.14 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- SD) X 10(10) per LBP [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acd solution


Biological context of Acd solution


Anatomical context of Acd solution

  • Both red blood cell and supernatant plasma biochemical characteristics were comparable to those reported for whole blood stored for 21 days in either acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) or CPD [17].
  • A single intrapulmonary injection of 3.8% trisodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) into rabbits results in extensive degeneration and necrosis of alveolar pneumocytes, including the type II pneumocyte, and of bronchiolar or bronchial epithelial cells [11].
  • Autologous blood was stored 24 hours or 21 days in ACD solution and then passed through standard recipient set filters before perfusion through the left lower lung lobes of dogs equipped to have pressure and gas tensions monitored from pulmonary artery, vein and bronchus [18].
  • A method to isolate and perfuse the hindlimb in a dog has been developed and used successfully to compare the difference of oxygen release between banked and fresh ACD blood [19].
  • The cell membrane capacitance (Cm) was independent of temperature in the range 25-40 degrees C and was significantly higher for blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant than that for blood with sodium citrate and acid citrate dextrose (ACD) [20].

Associations of Acd solution with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acd solution

  • The red blood cell survival of 21-day-old CPD bloods was acceptable if as little as 300 g of blood were collected whereas a minimum of 400 g of blood was necessary to provide normal survival after 21 days storage in ACD solution [25].
  • Infusion of ACD blood caused P50 and 2,3-DPG concentration to decrease significantly after the operation [26].
  • Blood samples collected in ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), heparin, and acid citrate dextrose (ACD) were processed by using conventional Hypaque-Ficoll (HF) separation and four whole blood (WB) lysis techniques: Immuno-lyse, Q-Prep, FACS Lyse, and Gen Trak Lysis [22].
  • In a further 14 normal volunteers, the Haemonetics MCS+ was used to isolate PRP by plateletpheresis using an acid citrate dextrose (ACD) to blood ratio of 1 : 9 [27].
  • In the blood stored in acid-citrate-dextrose solution (ACD blood), the oxygen affinity and red cell 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (2, 3-DPG) content showed parallel exponential decays with half-lives of 3 to 4 days [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acd solution

  • The findings in the units that had been obtained in less than four hours, in between four and six hours, and in more than six hours after the arthroplasty were similar whether or not the acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant had been used [29].
  • For 111In labelling, platelets were harvested by differential centrifugation from 43 ml of whole blood drawn into acid-citrate dextrose (ACD) solution [30].
  • CFU-GM survival in our storage conditions was significantly better than the survival achieved with hypothermic preservation in autologous serum and ACD-A solution at 4 degrees C (67.3 +/- 9.2% vs 42.9 +/- 15.3%; P < 0.01) or cryopreservation at -80 degrees C (67.3 +/- 9.2% vs 52.7 +/- 10.7%; P < 0.01) [31].
  • The clinical suitability of intraoperative autotransfusion was evaluated in 25 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation using a Cell Saver #4 (Haemonetics) with acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulation [32].
  • Specimens that are anticoagulated with acid citrate dextrose (ACD) or ethyl-diacetyl-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) should also be treated similarly to preserve granulocyte viability and to overcome problems associated with identification of cell populations by flow cytometry [33].


  1. Effects of specimen collection, processing, and storage conditions on stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels in plasma. Ginocchio, C.C., Wang, X.P., Kaplan, M.H., Mulligan, G., Witt, D., Romano, J.W., Cronin, M., Carroll, R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of blood collected in acid-citrate-dextrose and EDTA for use in human immunodeficiency virus peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Fiscus, S.A., Chakraborty, H., Shepard, R., Goodman, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Whole blood cryopreservation in epidemiological studies. Hayes, R.B., Smith, C.O., Huang, W.Y., Read, Y., Kopp, W.C. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of EDTA and acid-citrate-dextrose collection tubes for detection of cytomegalovirus antigenemia and infectivity in leukocytes before and after storage. Landry, M.L., Cohen, S., Huber, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of heparin and of acid-citrate-dextrose solution on screen filtration pressure of blood in experimental hypotension. Pardy, B.J., Dudley, H.A. The British journal of surgery. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Clinical experience with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime for labelling leucocytes and imaging inflammation. Peters, A.M., Danpure, H.J., Osman, S., Hawker, R.J., Henderson, B.L., Hodgson, H.J., Kelly, J.D., Neirinckx, R.D., Lavender, J.P. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Platelet monoamine oxidase. I: Effect of temperature, anticoagulant, and centrifugation technique. Sahai, S., Arora, R.C., Meltzer, H.Y. Biol. Psychiatry (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Survey of radioactive agents for in vitro labeling of phagocytic leukocytes. II. Particles. McAfee, J.G., Thakur, M.L. J. Nucl. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Optimization of specimen-handling procedures for accurate quantitation of levels of human immunodeficiency virus RNA in plasma by reverse transcriptase PCR. Dickover, R.E., Herman, S.A., Saddiq, K., Wafer, D., Dillon, M., Bryson, Y.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Alternate dosage regimens for high-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch. Rock, G., McCombie, N. Transfusion (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis induced by trisodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose. Mitsuhashi, T., Shimazaki, M., Chanoki, Y., Kuwahara, H., Sakai, T., Masuda, H. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Assessment of the optimal anticoagulant solution for storage of whole blood samples prior to measurement of platelet-associated IgG. Gibbons, S., Kelton, J.G. Transfusion (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of specimen age and anticoagulant on flow cytometric evaluation of granulocyte oxidative burst generation. Prince, H.E., Lapé-Nixon, M. J. Immunol. Methods (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Phagocytic response of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes to different incubation conditions and following exposure to some effectors of phagocytosis and different anticoagulants in vitro. Ducusin, R.J., Sarashina, T., Uzuka, Y., Tanabe, S., Ohtani, M. Can. J. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Acid citrate dextrose (ACD) formula A as a new anticoagulant in the measurement of in vitro platelet aggregation. Pignatelli, P., Pulcinelli, F.M., Ciatti, F., Pesciotti, M., Sebastiani, S., Ferroni, P., Gazzaniga, P.P. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Protective effects of vitamins E and C on erythrocytes in blood preserved in ACD solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Kopeć-Szlezak, J., Grabarczyk, M., Szczepańska, I., Furman, S. Haematologia (Budap) (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The in vivo survival of red blood cells stored in modified CPD with adenine: report of a multi-institutional cooperative effort. Zuck, T.F., Bensinger, T.A., Peck, C.C., Chillar, R.K., Beutler, E., Button, L.N., McCurdy, P.R., Josephson, A.M., Greenwalt, T.J. Transfusion (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. "Shock lung" resulting from perfusion of canine lungs with stored bank blood. Geelhoed, G.W., Bennett, S.H. The American surgeon. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Decreased oxygen uptake with stored blood in the isolated hindlimb. Yhap, E.O., Wright, C.B., Popovic, N.A., Alix, E.C. Journal of applied physiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Triple-frequency method for measuring blood impedance. Zhao, T.X., Jacobson, B., Ribbe, T. Physiological measurement. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. The contribution of anticoagulants to platelet dysfunction with extracorporeal circulation. Wallace, H.W., Brooks, H., Stein, T.P., Zimmerman, N.J. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Flow cytometric analysis of whole blood lysis, three anticoagulants, and five cell preparations. Carter, P.H., Resto-Ruiz, S., Washington, G.C., Ethridge, S., Palini, A., Vogt, R., Waxdal, M., Fleisher, T., Noguchi, P.D., Marti, G.E. Cytometry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies on citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) blood supplemented with adenine. Akerblom, O., Kreuger, A. Vox Sang. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Plasma exchange with prostaglandin I2 and ACD solution: comparative effects. Camici, M., Gremignai, G., Pecori, F., Evangelisti, L., Fosella, P.V. The International journal of artificial organs. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. The quality of over- and undercollected blood for transfusion. Button, L.N., Orlina, A.R., Kevy, S.V., Josephson, n.u.l.l. Transfusion (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Oxygen dissociation after transfusion of blood stored in ACD or CPD solution. Jesch, F., Webber, L.M., Dalton, J.W., Carey, J.S. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Autologous platelet-rich plasma isolated using the Haemonetics Cell Saver 5 and Haemonetics MCS+ for the preparation of platelet gel. O'Neill, E.M., Zalewski, W.M., Eaton, L.J., Popovsky, M.A., Pivacek, L.E., Ragno, G., Valeri, C.R. Vox Sang. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxygenation properties and intraerythrocytic constituents of human blood when stored in different media of ACD and CPD. Ochiai, T., Enoki, Y. Jpn. J. Physiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Unwashed filtered shed blood collected after knee and hip arthroplasties. A source of autologous red blood cells. Faris, P.M., Ritter, M.A., Keating, E.M., Valeri, C.R. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Indium-III: a new radionuclide label for studying human platelet kinetics. Heaton, W.A., Davis, H.H., Welch, M.J., Mathias, C.J., Joist, J.H., Sherman, L.A., Siegel, B.A. Br. J. Haematol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Successful liquid storage of peripheral blood stem cells at subzero non-freezing temperature. Matsumoto, N., Yoshizawa, H., Kagamu, H., Abe, T., Fujita, N., Watanabe, S., Kuriyama, H., Ishiguro, T., Tanaka, J., Suzuki, E., Kobayashi, K., Gemma, A., Kudoh, S., Gejyo, F. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Clinical evaluation of autotransfusion during liver transplantation. Kang, Y., Aggarwal, S., Virji, M., Pasculle, A.W., Lewis, J.H., Freeman, J.A., Martin, L.K. Anesth. Analg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Optimal storage conditions for preserving granulocyte viability as monitored by Annexin V binding in whole blood. Hodge, G.L., Flower, R., Han, P. J. Immunol. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
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