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Chemical Compound Review

Spasmium     1-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3- [(4...

Synonyms: Caroverin, Caroverina, Caroverine, Caroverinum, Spasmium (TN), ...
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Disease relevance of Caroverine


Psychiatry related information on Caroverine


High impact information on Caroverine


Chemical compound and disease context of Caroverine


Biological context of Caroverine

  • Pharmacokinetics of caroverine in the inner ear and its effects on cochlear function after systemic and local administrations in Guinea pigs [1].
  • In spontaneously firing SA node cells, caroverine (1 X 10(-7) M-1 X 10(-5) M) decreased the action potential amplitude (APA) and the maximal rate of depolarization (MRD) in a concentration-dependent manner [12].
  • Caroverine as well as verapamil had a frequency-dependent inhibitory action on atrial DT, which indicates that both of the drugs have an influence on the kinetics of slow channel of cardiac fibers [12].

Anatomical context of Caroverine

  • Since reactive oxygen species are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of inner ear diseases in which caroverine shows beneficial effects, the present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties of caroverine [8].
  • Local administration of caroverine on the round window membrane (RWM) could be a more effective means of administration to avoid systemic side/adverse effects [1].
  • Our results show much higher caroverine concentrations in the perilymph with lower concentrations in CSF and plasma following local applications compared with systemic administration [1].
  • The effects of caroverine on electrical activity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial (SA) node cells and atrial muscle fibers and on contractile force of atrial muscle preparations were examined [12].
  • Results. It was shown that caroverine could significantly protect the cochlea against impulse noise trauma [13].

Associations of Caroverine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Caroverine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Caroverine

  • 1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the acute antihypoxidotic properties of the calcium-channel blocking and antiglutamatergic caroverine were investigated utilizing blood gas analysis, EEG mapping and psychometry under a transient, reversible, hypoxic hypoxidosis [3].
  • Two different doses of caroverine were applied onto the round window membrane with gelfoam, followed by one-third-octave band noise centered at 6.3 kHz (110 dB SPL) for 1 h [4].
  • Multivariate analysis of EEG mapping data demonstrated that caroverine exerted a significant action on human brain function, as compared with placebo, at all given dosages, as early as in the 1st and as late as in the 8th hour after both intravenous and oral administration during resting (R-EEG) and vigilance-controlled recording (V-EEG) [17].
  • Topical administration of Caroverine in somatic tinnitus treatment: proof-of-concept study [16].


  1. Pharmacokinetics of caroverine in the inner ear and its effects on cochlear function after systemic and local administrations in Guinea pigs. Chen, Z., Duan, M., Lee, H., Ruan, R., Ulfendahl, M. Audiol. Neurootol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Infusional high-dose application of the calcium-channel-blocking and antiglutamatergic agent caroverine in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal (DSM-III-R 291.80). Geretsegger, C., Fartacek, R. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. On the cerebro-protective effects of caroverine, a calcium-channel blocker and antiglutamatergic drug: double-blind, placebo-controlled, EEG mapping and psychometric studies under hypoxia. Saletu, B., Grünberger, J., Anderer, P., Linzmayer, L., König, P. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Protection of auditory function against noise trauma with local caroverine administration in guinea pigs. Chen, Z., Ulfendahl, M., Ruan, R., Tan, L., Duan, M. Hear. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Ubiquinol and the papaverine derivative caroverine prevent the expression of tumour- promoting factors in adenoma and carcinoma colon cancer cells induced by dietary fat. Nohl, H., Rohr-Udilova, N., Gille, L., Bieberschulte, W., Jurek, D., Marian, B., Schulte-Hermann, R. Biofactors (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcium-channel-blocking agent in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal--caroverine versus meprobamate in a randomized double-blind study. Koppi, S., Eberhardt, G., Haller, R., König, P. Neuropsychobiology (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Clinical experience with caroverine in inner ear diseases. Ehrenberger, K. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The antioxidant activity of caroverine. Udilova, N., Kozlov, A.V., Bieberschulte, W., Frei, K., Ehrenberger, K., Nohl, H. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Caroverine depresses the activity of cochlear glutamate receptors in guinea pigs: in vivo model for drug-induced neuroprotection? Ehrenberger, K., Felix, D. Neuropharmacology (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of caroverine and diltiazem on synaptic responses, L-glutamate-induced depolarization and potassium efflux in the frog spinal cord. Kudo, Y., Shibata, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Receptor pharmacological models for inner ear therapies with emphasis on glutamate receptors: a survey. Ehrenberger, K., Felix, D. Acta Otolaryngol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Electromechanical effects of caroverine, a new slow-channel blockade, on the SA node cells of rabbit and atrial muscle fibers of rabbit and guinea pig. Ikeda, N., Kodama, I., Shibata, S., Kondo, N., Yamada, K. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Low-dose, long-term caroverine administration attenuates impulse noise-induced hearing loss in the rat. Duan, M., Chen, Z., Qiu, J., Ulfendahl, M., Laurell, G., Borg, E., Ruan, R. Acta Otolaryngol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Caroverine, a multifunctional drug with antioxidant functions. Nohl, H., Bieberschulte, W., Dietrich, B., Udilova, N., Kozlov, A.V. Biofactors (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Different action of memantine and caroverine on glutamatergic transmission in the mammalian cochlea. Oestreicher, E., Ehrenberger, K., Felix, D. Adv. Otorhinolaryngol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Topical administration of Caroverine in somatic tinnitus treatment: proof-of-concept study. Ehrenberger, K. The international tinnitus journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Acute central effects of the calcium channel blocker and antiglutamatergic drug caroverine. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, EEG mapping and psychometric studies after intravenous and oral administration. Saletu, B., Grünberger, J., Anderer, P., Linzmayer, L., König, P. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1995) [Pubmed]
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